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Sensation

The process of detecting a physical stimulus, such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.

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Perception

The process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensations.

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Transduction

The process by which a form of physical energy is converted into a coded neural signal that can be processed by the nervous system

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Sensory threshold

The point at which a stimulus is strong enough to be detected because it activates a sensory receptor cell

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Weber's law

Weber’s law  holds that for each sense, the size of a  just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus.

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Absolute threshold

The absolute threshold refers to the smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time.

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Visual process

photoreceptors that are located in its receptive field  in a particular area of the retina. In this early stage of visual processing, each ganglion cell combines, analyzes, and encodes the information from the photoreceptors in its receptive field before transmitting the information to the brain

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Key structures of the ear

Inner-sound waves are transformed into coded neural messages
Outer- sound waves are collected
Middle- sound waves are amplified

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Rods

The long, thin, blunt sensory receptors of the eye that are highly sensitive to light, but not to color, and that are primarily responsible for peripheral vision and night vision.

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Cones

The short, thick, pointed sensory receptors of the eye that detect color and are responsible for color vision and visual acuity.

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How do we hear

Sound waves are collected  in the outer ear, amplified  in the middle ear, and transduced,or transformed into neural messages, in the inner

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Frequency

The rate of vibration, or the number of sound waves per second.

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Pitch

The relative highness or lowness of a sound, determined by the frequency of a sound wave.

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Path of sound

After being caught by the outer ear, sound waves are funneled down the ear canal to the eardrum, which transfers the vibrations to the structures of the middle ear. In the middle ear, the vibra-tions are amplified and transferred in turn to the oval window and on to the fluid-filled cochlea in the inner ear (b). As the fluid in the cochlea vibrates, the basilar membrane ripples, bending the hair cells, which appear as rows of yellow tips in the top right section of the color-enhanced scanning electromicrograph (c). The bending of the hair cells stimu-lates the auditory nerve, which ultimately transmits the neural messages to the auditory cortex in the brain.

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Taste(gustation)

Results from the stimulation of special receptors in the mouth

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Smell(olfaction)

Sensory stimuli that produce our sense of smell are molecules in the air

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5 basic taste

Sweet,salty,sour,bitter,delicious

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Pain

The unpleasant sensation of physical discomfort or suffering that can occur in varying degrees of intensity.

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Fast pain

The myelinated  A-delta fibers represent the fast pain system. A-delta fibers transmit the sharp, intense, but short-lived pain of the immediate injury.

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Slow pain

The smaller, unmyelinated C fibers  represent the slow pain system.  As the sharp pain subsides, C fibers transmit the longer-lasting throbbing, burning pain of the injury