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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (37):
1

What is an IRB?

Institutional Review Board

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Purpose of IRB? (4) 

to regulate research

- must approve virtually all research on human participants

- ensure studies present as little risk to subjects as possible & have scientific merit

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Conducting research often involves a conflict between what (2) sets of values?

1) commitment of psychologist to expand knowledge of behavior & potential benefit of research to society

2) cost of research to participants

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Informed consent

legally given permission to participate in study

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consent vs assent

Consent can only be given by those people who are legally capable

Assent = willingness to participate in study

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How does the conception of Informed Consent differ between

a) APA ethics code

b) medical view

a) says participants need to be informed only in aspects of research that might be expected to influence their decisions to participate (assumes they dont care what purpose is)

b) a concept that according to which patients have right to know exactly what is being done to them & for what reasons

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Coercion

compelling or influencing a decision to participate in a study

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Problems with the use of deception in psychological research?

many studies require participants to be naive about the hypothesis

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debriefing

Process of informing participants after session of experiment’s true purpose to increase understanding & to remove possible harmful effects of deception

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(2) different views of the role of the research participant

1) traditional - participant contributes behavior to experiment in same way participant in med exp. contributes urine - object of study & dehumanized

2) participant is colleague who cooperates in providing data (popular with feminists & humanistic psychologists)

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Plagiarism

– presenting substantial portions/elements of another’s work/data as their own

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How does Plagiarism impede the progress of science?

Empirical testing of data is foundation of science,

plagiarism is essentially scientific theft b/c it is stealing ideas

- copying & not advancing/having new ideas

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How does Fabrication of Data impede of science?

stands in the way of science's progressive nature

- basing experimental ideas on false results will fail & science will self-correct but only after years of futile work & many wasted research dollars

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Animal rights

notion that animals have same sort of rights as people including legal rights

not generally accepted

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Animal welfare

`generally accepted term for concerns about the care & use of animals

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Speciesism

term used by analogy with racism & sexism by those who claim that it is unethical to treat animals differently from humans, particularly in research

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Unethical Research (2)

Nazi Hypothermia Experiments

Milgram (1963) Experiments- phenomena of obedience to authority

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What ethical standards did the Milgram (1963) Experiment violate?

- forcing to continue

- COERCION

- deception

- psychological risk/harm

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(3) Ethics Codes to go by

1) American Psychological Association (2010)

2) Canadian Psychological Association (2000)

3) Tri-Council (3 federal granting councils → MRC, NSERC & SSHRC)

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(4) General Ethical Principles

1) Respect for Dignity of Persons

2) Responsible Caring

3) Integrity of Relationships

4) Responsibility to Society

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1) Respect for Dignity of Persons

belief that each person should be treated primarily as a person/end in him/herself not an object or means to an end

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1) Respect for Dignity of Persons

- RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS (2)

1) free & informed consent

2) privacy & confidentiality

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2) Responsible Caring (5) 

- discern potential harm/benefits involved

- predict likelihood of their occurrence

- proceed only if benefits outweigh harms

- develop methods to minimize harms & maximize benefits

- take responsibility for correcting harmful effects

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2) Responsible Caring

- RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS (2)

1) protection from harm

2) providing info & debriefing

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3) Integrity of Relationships

relationships embody explicit & implicit mutual expectations of integrity

→ accuracy, honesty, straightforwardness, openness maximization of objectivity & minimization of bias

- avoid conflicts of interest

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3) Integrity of Relationships

- RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS (2)

1) avoidance of deception

2) avoidance of conflict of interest

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4) Responsibility to Society

(2) of legit expectations of psych as a science & profession are:

1 - increase knowledge

2 - conduct affairs in way that promotes welfare of all human beings

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4) Responsibility to Society

- RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS (2)

1) pursuit of knowledge

2) dissemination of knowledge

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Free consent

- (2) parts

a) given voluntarily

b) can be withdrawn at any time

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Informed Consent

researchers shall provide to prospective subjects or authorized 3rd parties

- full & frank disclosure of all info relevant to participate in research project

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Privacy & Confidentiality

anonymity of person's identity

confidentiality of person's info

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Protection from Harm

(minimal risk) 

design, assess &conduct research in way that protects participants from any unnecessary/avoidable risks -

Minimal risk → probability & magnitude of possible harms implied by participation in research is no greater than those encountered in aspects of everyday life that relate to the research

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Avoidance of Deception

where partial disclosure/deception is used, debriefing is important mechanism to maintain participants trust in research community

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Avoidance of Conflict of Interest

researchers shall disclose in research proposals submitted any real, potential or perceived individual/institutional conflicts of interest which they are aware of that might impact research

MULTIPLE ROLES 

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MULTIPLE ROLES 

→ to preserve/not abuse trust on which many professional relationships rest, researchers should be aware of conflicts of interest that may arise from dual/multiple roles, rights & responsibilities & how to manage conflict

- must disclose nature of conflict to participant in consent process

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Providing Info & Debriefing

- give details about importance of research, necessity of having to use partial disclose/deception & express concern about welfare of participants

-seek to remove any misconceptions & re-establish trust that may have been lost by explaining why research procedures were necessary to obtain findings

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