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Alimentary Canal

Alternate name for the gastrointestinal system

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Digestive System

Alternate name for the gastrointestinal system. Also know as the digestive tract.

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Gastrointestinal System

Body system that includes the salivary glands, oral cavity(teeth, gums, palate, and tongue), pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines, and the accessory organs of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas.
Function: to digest food, absorb nutrients into the blood, and remove undigested from the body.
Also known as: gastrointestinal tract, alimentary canal, & digestive tract/system

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Deglutition

Process of swallowing food

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Gustatory Cortex

Are of brain that receives and interprets tastes from the tongue

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Mastication

Process of chewing. Part of the mechanical digestion

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Mucosa

Mucous membrane that lines the gastrointestinal system and produces mucus.

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Oral Cavity

Mouth, hollow area that contains hard palate, soft palate, uvula, tongue, gums, and teeth

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Palate

Hard bone, and posterior soft tissues that form the roof of the mouth

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Pharynx

Throat. Passageway for both food and inhaled/exhaled air

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Salivary Glands

3 pairs of glands(parotid, submandibular, and sublingual). Secrete salvia into the mouth. Saliva is a watery substance, contains digestive enzyme amylase.

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Tongue

Large muscle that fills oral cavity and assists w/ eating and talking. Contains receptors for the sense of taste.

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Uvula

Fleshy hanging part of soft palate. Plays role in speech. During swallowing, it initiates the gag reflex to prevent food from entering the pharynx before the epiglottis closes over the larynx.

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Cardia

First part of stomach, inferior to the esophagus

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Chyme

Combo of partially digested food, saliva, & digestive enzymes in the stomach and small intestine

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Esophagus

Flexible , muscular tube that moves the food from pharynx to the stomach.

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Liver

Large dark brown organ. Located in upper abdomen.

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Hapatocytes

Liver cells. Cell of the liver. Continuously produce bile(yellow green, bitter tasting, thick fluid).

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Bilirubin

Substance of bile from old red blood cells.

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Biliverdin

Green pigment. Substance in bile.

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Bile Ducts

Ducts from the liver and gallbladder that carry bile.

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Biliary Tree

All of the ducts in the liver and gallbladder that carry bile.

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Pancreas

Yellow. Accessory organ of digestion that produces enzymes(amylase, lipase).

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Digestion

Begins in oral cavity. Breaks down or digests food.

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Anorexia

Decreased appetite because of disease or gastrointestinal side affects of a drug.

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Dysphagia

Difficult or painful eating or swallowing. Stroke can make it difficult to coordinate the muscles for eating and swallowing. An oral infection, poorly fitted dentures, or radiation therapy to the mouth for cancer can cause painful eating.

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Polyphagia

Excessive overeating due to an overactive thyroid gland, diabetes, mellitus, or a psychiatric illness.

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Cheilitis

Inflammation and cracking of the lips and corners if the mouth due to infection, allergies, or a nutritional deficiency.

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Sialolithiasis

A stone that forms in the salivary gland and becomes lodged in the duct, blocking flow of saliva. Salivary gland, mouth and face become swollen. When salivary gland contracts, the duct spasms, causing pain.

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Albumin

Protein molecule in the blood.

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Alkaline phosphatase(ALP)

An enzyme in liver cells.

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ALT & AST

Test for the enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase(AST) which are mostly found in the liver.

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Bilirubin

A substance of bile from old red blood cells.

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GGT

Test for the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, which is mostly mainly found in the liver.

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Liver Function Tests(LFTs)

Panel of individual blood tests performed at same time to give a comprehensive picture of liver function. Includes albumin, bilirubin, ALT, AST, GGT, and prothrombin time(to evaluate blood clotting factors produced by the liver).

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CLO Test

Rapid screening test to detect the presence of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. A biopsy of the patients gastric mucosa is placed in urea.

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Culture & Sensitivity (C&S)

Test that uses a culture to determine which bacterium is causing an intestinal infection and a sensitivity test to determine which antibiotic drugs it is sensitive to. Patients feces are swabbed onto a culture dish that contains a nutrient medium for growing bacteria.

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Nasogastric Tube

Tube inserted through the nose and into the stomach. Used to drain secretions from the stomach, take a sample of gastric acid, or give feelings or drugs to the patient on a temporary basis.

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Abdominocentesis

Procedure to remove fluid from the abdomen using a needle and a vacuum container. Relieves abdominal pressure from fluid produced by ascites. Also done to see if there are cancer cells in the peritoneal fluid after abdominal trauma.

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Appendectomy

Procedure to remove the appendix because of appendicitis.

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Biopsy

Process of removing and then viewing living tissue removed from the body. Remove from an ulcer, polyp, mass, or tumor.

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Bowel Resection and Anastomosis

Procedure to remove a section of diseased intestine and rejoin the intestine. An end to end anastomosis joins the two cut ends together. An end to side Anastomosis joins one end to the side of another segment.

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Antacid drugs

Drug that is against excess acid in the stomach. For heartburn.
-Rolaids
-Maalox
-Mylanta
-Tums

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Antibiotic Drugs

Drug used against vomiting. Against living organisms.
-Amoxicillin
-Ciprofloxacin
-Doxycycline
-Helidac

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Antidiarrheal Drugs

Used to treat diarrhea. Slows peristalsis and increases water absorption from the feces.
-Loperamide
-Lomotil

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Antiemetic Drugs

Treats nausea, vomiting, and motion sickness.
-Dimenhydrinate
-Meclizene

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Gallstone Drugs

Dissolves gallstones, instead of surgical removal.
-Chenodiol
-Ursodiol

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H2 Blocker drugs

Treat peptic ulcers by blocking H2(Histamine 2) receptors in the stomach that trigger the release of hydrochloric acid.
-Cimetidine
-Famotidine
-Ranitidine

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Laxative Drugs

Treats constipation by softening poop, adding dietary fiber, or directly stimulating the intestinal mucosa.
-Bisacodyl
-Docusate
-Psyllium

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Proton pump inhibitor drugs

Treats heartburn, peptic ulcers, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) by blocking the final step in production of hydrochloric acid.
-Esomeprazole
-Omeprazole

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Suppository

Bullet shaped capsule that contains a drug. Inserted into rectum where it melts and releases the drug.