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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (37):

ad hominem

A flaw in reasoning that occurs when a speaker attacks a person instead of the person’s argument


ad verecundiam

A flaw in reasoning that occurs when a speaker appeals to authority saying that an idea must be true because some esteemed person claims it is true, even though the issue at hand is out of that authority person’s area of expertise


advising response

Responses used by empathic listeners
when they propose a solution to a person’s problem. Advising responses should be avoided in most cases


combative listening

Occurs when a person listens very intently to senders’ messages for the purpose of attacking them,often by using their own words against them as soon as they are finished speaking


content paraphrase

A paraphrase in your own words that focuses on the information or content contained in the speaker’s entire message


critical listening

This type of listening is needed when the speaker’s goal is to persuade you and your goal must be to evaluate the credibility of the speaker and of the message


defensive listeners

People who seem to be easily offended and tend to interpret innocent remarks as though they were criticisms


empathic listening

A type of listening that is needed when a sender’s goal is to get help to cope with or solve a problem and your goal is to listen with empathy and see the world from the sender’s frame of reference



Refers to speaker credibility and includes three characteristics: competence, character, and charisma


external noise

Distractions in the environment, such as
loud sounds or unusual movement in your surroundings, that cause you to be unable to effectively compose your thoughts as you speak to others or make it
difficult to decode the messages you are receiving





feelings paraphrase

A paraphrase in your own words that focuses on the emotions that you detect underneath the content of the message


focused listening

Listening that occurs when someone listens without thinking about personal views, makes no judgments, and only speaks to clarify what the
speaker is saying


hasty generalization

A flaw in reasoning that occurs when a conclusion is based on only isolated examples or too few examples


high-context cultures

Cultures in which people’s understanding of what is being communicated is based on the nature of the physical situation. High-context cultures tend to be fairly collectivistic,and listen by paying less attention to the actual words spoken
and more to the context such as the groups to
which the speaker belongs (community, family, or organizations), the speaker’s status and age,the background and history of the topic or situation, and the
speaker’s nonverbal gestures and expressions.


imitation listening

Pretending to listen by exhibiting behaviors that are commonly associated with good listening, while simultaneously attending to some other stimulus in the environment or to your intrapersonal dialogue



A conclusion that is drawn from something you observe


information overload

Occurs when an abundance of messages all compete for your attention


informational listening

The type of listening that is required when the sender’s goal is to convey information and the receiver’s goal is to comprehend the information


insulated listening

When we don’t hear what we don’t want to hear so we don’t have to deal with it


internal noise

Refers to any number of things that you
may be experiencing physiologically or psychologically that cause you to have difficulty listening to messages


interpreting response

Responses used by empathic listeners that offer the speaker another way to view some aspect of the situation


judging response

Responses used by empathic listeners when they try to make a person feel better with platitudes or by minimizing their concerns by using statements such as, “Don’t worry; everything will be okay,” “You shouldn’t feel that way,” or “That’s not a problem.”Judging responses should be avoided



The active process of constructing meaning
from spoken messages through attention to the verbal and nonverbal codes that accompany them



Evidence and reasoning that supports any claim
the speaker makes


long-term memory

Stored memory that lasts a lifetime; referred to as LTM


low-context cultures

Cultures in which people’s understanding of what is being communicated is based on the nature of the physical situation. Low-context cultures tend to be fairly individualistic. In low-context cultures, people listen carefully to the actual words spoken and give only minor attention to the context in which the message occur



A statement in your own words,sometimes phrased in the form of a question, which reflects to senders the gist of what you heard them say



Appeals to emotion as a way to be persuasive



A type of cross-examination used to gain
understanding or additional information


receiver apprehension

A response that can occur when listeners become frightened or confused by messages from speakers who seem to have an abundance of knowledge about topics that are not part of our own day-to-day experience such as political or academic
speakers. The fear is that we cannot comprehend what is being said


reflective listening

Paraphrasing,as we discussed earlier, is reflecting to the speaker what you heard him or her say. In fact, paraphrasing is often referred to as
reflective listening.


selective listening

Occurs when we hear what we want to hear


semantic noise

An internal noise affecting successful sending or receiving of messages that occurs because
people use language for which meanings are not shared


short-term memory

Memory that holds information for 30 seconds or less unless we take notes or rehearse
the information in some way; referred to as STM


stages of listening

The stages that listeners go through when listening including attending, understanding, responding, and remembering


supporting response

Responses used by empathic listeners as they let the speaker know that they are concerned and willing to invest the time and energy required to listen