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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (27):
1

interdependence

a political and economic situation in which two states are simultaneously dependent on each other for their well-being.
the degree of interdependence is sometimes designated in terms of "sensitivity" or "vulnerability"

2

neoliberal

(neoliberal institutionalism" - an approach that stresses the importance of international institutions in reducing the inherent conflict that realists assume in an international system (based on core liberal idea that long-term mutual gains is often more rational that maximizing individual short-term gains)

3

international regime

a set of rules, norms, and procedures around which the expectations of actors converge in a certain international issue area (such as oceans or monetary policy)

4

collective security

the formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by any actor; sometimes seen as presupposing the existence of a universal organization (e.g. UN) to which both the aggressor and its opponents belong

5

democratic peace

the proposition, strongly supported by empirical evidence, that democracies almost never fight wars against each other (although they do fight against authoritarian states)

6

interest groups

coalitions of people who share a common interest in the outcome of some political issue and who organize themselves to try to influence the outcome

7

"rally 'round the flag" syndrome

the public's increased support for government leaders during wartime, at least in the short term

8

foreign policy process

the process by which foreign policies are arrived at and implemented

9

rational model

a model in which decision makers calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs

10

organizational process model

a decision-making model in which policy makers or lower-level officials rely largely on standardized responses or standard operating procedures

11

government bargaining model

a model that sees foreign policy decisions as flowing from a bargaining process among various government agencies that have somewhat divergent interests in the outcome ("where you stand depends on where you sit")

12

misperceptions (selective perceptions)

the selective or mistaken procession of the available information about a decision; one of several ways--along with affective and cognitive bias--in which individual decision making diverges from the rational model

13

information screens

the subconscious or unconscious filters through which people put the information coming in about the world around them

14

optimizing

picking the very best option; contrasts with satisficing
the model of "bounded rationality" postulates that decision makers generally "satisfice" rather than optimize

15

satisficing

the act of finding a satisfactory or "good enough" solution to the problem

16

prospect theory

a decision-making theory that holds that options are assessed by comparison to a reference point, which is often the status quo but might be some past or expected situation
the model holds that decision makers fear losses more than they value gains

17

groupthink

the tendency of groups to validate wrong decisions by becoming overconfident and underestimation risks

18

constructivism

a movement in IR theory that examines how changing international norms and actors' identities help shape the content of state interests

19

postmodernism

an approach that denies the existence of a single fixed reality, and pays special attention to texts and to discourses--that is, how people talk and write about a subject

20

subtext

meanings that are implicit or hidden in a text rather than explicitly addressed

21

Marxism

a branch of socialism that emphasizes exploitation and class struggle and includes both communism and other approaches

22

conflict resolution

the development and implementation of peaceful strategies for settling conflicts

23

mediation

the use of a third party (or parties) in conflict resolution

24

difference feminism

a strand of feminism that believes gender differences are not just socially constructed and that views women as inherently less warlike than men (on average)

25

liberal feminism

a strand of feminism that emphasizes gender equality and views the "essential" differences in men's and women's abilities or perspectives as trivial or nonexistent

26

postmodern feminism

an effort to combine feminist and postmodernist perspectives with the aim of uncovering the hidden influences of gender in IR and showing how arbitrary the construction of gender roles is

27

gender gap

refers to polls showing women lower than men on average in their support for military actions, as well as various other issues and candidates