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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (53):
1

Developmental Psychology

physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan

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Social Development
(Eric Erickson)

the longing to be connected with others

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Cognition
(Piaget)

All mental activities

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Chromosomes

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

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DNA

Molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

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zygote

the fertilized egg; entering a 2 week period of rapid cell division

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embryo

developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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genome

shared genetic profile

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fetus

9 weeks after conception (has all the human body parts)

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environment

every external influence, from prenatal nutrition to social support in later life.

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teratogen

chemical or virus that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause extreme harm including physical abnormalities

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Interaction

the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor depends on another factor

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epigenetics

environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

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identical twins

share the same egg that splits in two

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fraternal twins

come from 2 different eggs but develop at the same time

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fetal alcohol syndrome

abnormalities to fetus caused by drinking too much alcohol

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reflex

automatic response to a sensory stimulus

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temperament

a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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maturation (nature)

biological growth processes leading to orderly changes in behavior, mostly independent of experience

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critical period (use it or lose it)

a period early in life when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences is needed for proper development

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coginition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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schema (framework)

a concept that organizes and interprets information

linking things to what we know to be true

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assimilation

taking in new information in terms of our existing schemas

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accommodation

adapting our current understandings to incorporate new information

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sensorimotor 0-2

infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not in sight

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pre-operational stage 2-7

a child learns to use language but cannot yet perform the mental operations of concrete logic

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egocentrism

cannot perceive things from the point of view of another

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theory of mind

peoples ideas about their own and others' mental states

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conservation

concrete reasoning

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autism spectrum disorder

significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors

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concrete operational 6- 11

gains mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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formal operational 12-beyond

begins to think logically about concrete events

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stranger anxiety (8months)

fear of strangers that infants commonly display

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secure attachment

healthy attachment to caregiver
love them but can also go out and play

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insecure attachment

unhealthy attachment, dont want to let the mother go

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avoidant attachment

could not care less whether the mother was there or not.

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authoritarian

my way or the high way!

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permissive

your way and that is fine!

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authoritative

my way, let me explain why.

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adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence

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puberty

sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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identity

our sense of self

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social identity

the "we" aspect of our self concept

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intimacy

the ability to form close loving relationships

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emerging adulthood (18-28)

have not yet achieved full independence as aduts

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menopause

the end of menstruation

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social clock (right of passage)

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

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TODAYS RESEARCH

*development is continuous
*develop mental abilities at an earlier age
*formal logic is a smaller part of cognition

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Kohlbergs level of moral thinking

pre-conventional
conventional
post-conventional

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pre-conventional

do not want to get in trouble

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conventional

what will others think of me

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post-conventional

I do it because it is whats right