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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (104):
1

Four types of organic molecules that are essential to life

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

2

Major function is short term energy Storage

Carbohydrates

3

Fats, long-term energy source

Lipids

4

Most diverse functions, "work horses" do the work

Proteins

5

DNA and RNA, genetic information and the blueprints for making proteins

Nucleic acids

6

Basis for all organic molecules

Carbon Atom

7

Carbon Atom has __ valence electrons

4

8

Carbon atoms form __ bonds with itself and other atoms

Covalent

9

Individual unit, together forms a __

Monomer
Polymer

10

When chemical bonds are formed, energy is __. What chemical bonds are broken, energy is __

Stored
Released

11

Monomer going to polymer is __

Storing energy (creating bonds)

12

Polymer going to monomer is __

Releasing energy (breaking bonds)

13

Monomer to polymer is called __

Dehydration synthesis

14

Polymer to monomer is called __

Hydrolysis

15

In hydrolysis, the bond is broken by __

Adding water (divides into H and O)

16

In dehydration synthesis, the bond is created by __, creating H2O

Taking out water

17

The monomer of the polymer carbohydrates is __

Simple sugars

18

Carbohydrates contain a ratio of __

C:H:O
1:2:1

19

Glucose is __

C6 H12 O6

20

Simple sugars almost always and in __

"ose"

21

Simple sugar by itself is called __

Monosaccharides

22

Three monosaccharides

Glucose, galactose, fructose

23

Two monosaccharides put together are called __

Disaccharides

24

Glucose + fructose = __

Sucrose (table sugar)

25

Glucose + galactose =

Lactose (sugar found in dairy)

26

Glucose + glucose =

Maltose

27

Monosaccharides and disaccharides give the cell its _, especially __ because has __ to break down stuff

Energy
Glucose
Enzymes

28

Has a few simple sugars, three to hundred monomers

Oligosaccharides

29

Complex carbohydrates, over 100 monomers attached

Polysaccharides

30

The most abundant organic molecule because it's a structural cell in every plant

Cellulose

31

__ structural carbohydrate, it is fiber in our diet, we can't digest it
Ex: cotton, wood, paper

Cellulose

32

Structural carbohydrate and insects, it makes up their Exoskeleton
Ex: good flea control

Chitin

33

examples of complex carbohydrates

Cellulose, chitin, starch, glycogen

34

Where glucose is stored in plants

Starch

35

Where glucose is stored in animals. Is stored in the __ if we need the energy quickly, if we don't, it becomes __

Glycogen
Liver
Fat

36

Lipids are __

Hydrophobic

37

Lipids main function is __

Long-term energy storage

38

Lipids in people is in the form of __

fat

39

Lipids in plants is in the form of __

Oils

40

Lipids do not have the __

Monomer to polymer relationship

41

Made up of glycerol + 3 fatty acid

Triglycerides

42

Fats that at room temperature are solid
Ex: Bacon fat
(Increases heart disease)

Saturated fat

43

Fats that have at least one double bond which causes the tale to bend, spreads out the molecules, creating it to be liquid at room temperature
Ex: vegetable oil

Unsaturated fats

44

Fat that is partially hydrogenated- this means that we put hydrogens on unsaturated fats to make them solid at room temperature
Ex: crisco
(worse for your heart than saturated fats)

Trans fats

45

Uses of triglycerides

Use for insulation, need fat for brain development, acts as a cushion, builds up for hibernating

46

This means that in one molecule, when part is hydrophilic and one part is hydrophobic

Amphipathic

47

__ is amphipathic (on end is hydrophilic and one is hydrophobic)

Phospholipid

48

Phospholipids have __ heads and __ tales, because of this, they form a __

Hydrophilic heads (polar)
Hydrophobic tails (nonpolar)
Bilayer (tails will face each other, heads will face out)

49

Has 4 inter counted carbon rings

Steroids

50

Example of steroid

Vitamin D, Cortizone, estrogen, testosterone, cholesterol

51

Very important steroid, building block for all the rest, found in plasma membrane

Cholesterol

52

Fatty acids combine with either alcohol or a different carbohydrate

Waxes

53

Stiff and water repellent, protective

Waxes

54

Different types of lipids

Triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, waxes

55

Contains carbon hydrogen and often oxygen

Organic molecules

56

It's functions are all about the shape and are the most diverse

Proteins

57

The functions of a protein

Metabolism, support/structure, transport, defense, regulation, motion

58

Sum of all chemical reactions in a cell

Metabolism

59

Proteins that speed up chemical reactions (most important metabolic protein)

Enzymes

60

Very hard protein
Ex: makes up hair, nails, feathers, clause

Keratin

61

Major component of connective tissue

Collagen

62

Transport in proteins is across __

Plasma membranes

63

Protein in your blood which oxygen binds to so I can carry it to tissues

Hemoglobin

64

Fight against viruses and bacteria

Antibodies

65

Immune system has __- it immediately makes antibodies for the same virus

Memory

66

Came up with the polio vaccine

Salk and Sabin

67

Either proteins or steroids- made in one place but can act in other places- travel, stimulate and inhibit production

Hormones

68

Motion in proteins consist of __

Muscle contraction and cell movement

69

For every protein in your body there are __

20 amino acids

70

There are __ essential amino acids that we must obtain from food we can't make them

8

71

Bond between amino acids, less than 100 amino acids

Peptide bond

72

Bond between two amino acids

Dipeptide

73

Bond between three amino acids

Tripeptide

74

Bond greater than 100 amino acids

Polypeptide

75

Levels of protein structure

Primary, secondary, Tertiary, quaternary

76

The __ level of protein structure is the amino acid sequence

Primary

77

The __ level of protein structure is how it folds in certain parts of a protein

Secondary

78

Protein can fold into two forms __ and __

Alpha helix (spiral)
Beta-pleated sheet (looks like accordion)

79

The __ level of protein structure is the overall shape of the protein (3D structure)- determined by its interaction with water

Tertiary

80

The __ level of protein structure that is the interaction between different polypeptides of the same protein

Quaternary

81

Change in the shape of a protein such that it no longer functions

Denaturation

82

Two ways to denature (can be reversible, but usually not)

Change in temperature and change in pH

83

Examples of denaturing by temperature

Curling your hair

84

Examples of denaturing by changing pH

Getting a perm

85

The monomer for nucleic acid's is __

Nucleotides

86

Nucleotides have three parts

Sugar, phosphate, base

87

There are two types of nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

88

Three types of RNA

rRNA, mRNA, tRNA

89

The most important molecule of the body, energy unit of the cell

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

90

Our body produces __ ATP per minute to stay alive

20 billion

91

We get energy to make ATP from __ and __

Food and oxygen

92

DNA sugar

Deoxyribose

93

RNA sugar

Ribose

94

DNA bases

Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine

95

RNA bases

Guanine, uracil, adenine, cytosine

96

DNA structure

Double helix

97

RNA structure

Single stranded

98

DNA function

Contains genetic material for cell

99

RNA function

Reads DNA code and helps make protein

100

Function and human uses of fats

Long-term energy storage in insulation and animals; butter, lard

101

Function and human uses of oils

Long-term energy storage in plants and their seeds; cooking oils

102

Function and human uses of phospholipids

Component of plasma membrane; food additive

103

Function and human uses of steroids

Component of plasma membrane (cholesterol), sex hormones; medicines

104

Function and human uses of waxes

Protection, prevention of water loss cuticle of plant services, beeswax, your rights; candles, polishes