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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (46):
1

Sociological research technique in which the researcher actually becomes simultaneously both participant and observer of that which she or he studies

Participant observation

2

Defined the scientific method which involves several steps in the research process, including observation, hypothesis testing, analysis of data and generalization

Sir Francis Bacon

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Creating a specific research question about a focus. That is based on a more general or universal principle

Deductive reasoning

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Reverses logic; arrives at general conclusions from specific observations

Inductive reasoning

5

Research that is repeated exactly but on a different group of people or in a different time and place

Replication study

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Overall logic and strategy underlying a research project
-consistent use an observational technique best suited to a particular research question

Research design

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Uses numerical analysis reduces the data into numbers

Quantitative research

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Is somewhat less structured and quantitative research yet still focuses on essential research question
-allows for more interpretation and he wants in what people say and do and that's can provide an in-depth look at a particular social behavior

Qualitative research

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Characteristic of a person or group that can have more than one value or score

Variable

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I am changing the result

Independent variable

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The result

Dependant variable

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that fall between in dependent and independent variables

Intervening variables

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Abstract characteristics or attributes that can potentially be measured

Concept

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Something that points to or if that's an abstract concept

Indicator

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The degree to which accurately measures of reflects the concept

Validity

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If repeating a measurement under the same circumstances gives the same result

Reliability

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Phenomenon in which people change their behavior if they know they're being studied

Hawthorne effect

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Princess yeah just gather original data

Primary data

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Data that has already been gathered and organized by some other party

Secondary data

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Any subset of people of a population

Sample

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Relatively large collection of people that a researcher studies about which generalizations are made

Population

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Gives everyone in the population in equal chance of being selected

Random sample

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The process by which sociologist organize collect the data to discover the patterns and uniformities that the data reveal

Data analysis

24

Something that emerges from a study that was not anticipated

Serendipity

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Ability to draw conclusions from specific data into apply them to a broader population

Generalization

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Percentage of questionnaires return out of all those distributed

Return rate

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Will solicit data about the respondent such as income, occupation, employment status, age, race, gender etc.

Survey questionnaire

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People must reply from a list of possible answers (multiple choice)

Closed ended questions

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Respondent is allowed to elaborate on their answer

Open ended question

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Sociologist William Foote Whyte
-documents one of the 1st qualitative participant observation studies ever done

Street Corner Society

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A person with the whom the participant observer works closely in order to learn about the group

Informant

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Members of the group being studied do not know that they are being researched

Covert participant observation

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Members of the group DO know they are being

Overt participation observation

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Highly organized mini society with its own social hierarchy

Social stratification

35

How do you focused with collecting data there are two groups: experimental and control

Controlled experiments

36

Exposed to the doctor or variable one is examining

Experimental

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Not expose this after or variable

Control group

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Group randomly assigned to the experimental group a control group

Experimental randomization

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Measurement made before experiment

Pretest

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Measurement made after the experiment

Posttest

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A way of measuring by examining the cultural artifacts of what people write, say, see and hear

Content analysis

42

Newspapers, magazines, TV programs, popular music

Cultural artifacts

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Assesses the effect of policies and programs on people in society

Evaluation research

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Research intended to produce policy recommendations

Policy research

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Reveal the true purpose of the experiment

Debriefing

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Getting agreement to participate from the respondents after they are informed of the purposes of the study

Informed consent