Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

Dual Biology > Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (186):
1

Sea Oats

planted along the MS Gulf Coast to prevent erosion of the sand

2

MS Gulf Coast

one of the longest man made beaches

3

Ship Island

Fort Massachusetts- waves are rushing in beach line, pulling soil with it=erodes away, changing; change barrier island (7) built in the middle

4

"rip rap"

broken pieces of concrete that reinforce an area of high water, wave, or wind position

5

August 1969

Hurricane Camille- broke and created channel in the island

6

matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

7

moon's gravity

1/6 of the earth's

8

weight

measurement of gravitational pull to earth's center

9

there are 92 elements in nature
6 of them- 95% of all organisms

CHNOPS

10

iodine

an essential ingredient of a hormone produced by a thyroid gland located in neck

11

iodine deficiency

causes the thyroid gland to enlarge, condition called goiter

12

foods naturally rich in iodine

kelp, green vegetables, dairy products (fish=mercury), "iodized salt"

13

fluorine

added to dental products and drinking water/help maintain healthy bones/teeth

14

mixture

two or more things physically combined

15

compound

two or more things chemically combined

16

NaCl, H2O, DNA

contains carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and phosphorus

17

atom

The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of the element

18

molecule

A group of atoms that are held together by a chemical force; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substance's chemical properties

19

element

A substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means

20

Pure substance

A sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical properties and physical properties

21

molecule of water

wet, tasteless, odorless

22

atomic number= protons

different number of neutrons=isotopes

23

isotope

the different isotopes of an element have the same numbers of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons; forms element that differ in mass

24

radioactive isotopes

one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy

25

covalent bond

when two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons

26

ionic bond

attraction between oppositely changed ions

27

hydrogen bond

found in water aka polar bonds; double helix (DNA molecule)=tight bond holds the nitrogen bases together; "weak"- DNA has to break the bond to bond replicate

28

life on earth began in water

water is necessary for all living things in one form or another

29

amount of water cells have

70-95% water

30

abundance of water

reason why earth is habitable

31

first animal to have success on land

amphibians

32

amphibians

having two lives- had to return to water to reproduce

33

reptiles

first animals to be independent of water; developed the amniote egg

34

iguanas, turtles, ect.

have to return back to land to reproduce; mass/weight might change because of air space

35

doppler effect

an increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other

36

cohesion

tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together- cling to other water molecules

37

adhesion

tendency of water to long to another surface

38

pouring water from one to cup to another

oxygen passes

39

fish get oxygen from dissolved oxygen in water

waves come up=trapping oxygen

40

organic compounds are called

macromolecules

41

macromolecules

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

42

carbohydrates

"sugars"

43

monosaccharides
C6H12O6

"simple sugars"; has one 6 carbon ring called a monomer; provides quick energy
ex: glucose, fructose, galactose, and ribose

44

disaccharides
C12H22O11

"double sugars"; also provides quick energy; has two 6C rings
ex: lactose, sucrose, maltose

45

many monomers make up a polymer

polymerization

46

Dehydration Synthesis

in order to combine two monomers to form a disaccaride, one molecule of H2O must be removed

47

Polysaccharides

starches; provides long lasting energy

48

hydrolysis

add H2O to break down

49

animals store starch as a glycogen in

liver
ex: potatoes, bread, rice, pasta, chitin

50

chitin

makes up the cell wall of fungi and exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans ( crabs, lobsters and shrimps)

51

cellulose

plants store starch

52

proteins

composed of smaller units of amino acids (20 different kinds)

53

potatoes

have tuber

54

structural proteins

provides support

55

storage proteins

provide amino acids for growth

56

contractile proteins

help movement

57

transport proteins

help transport substances

58

enzymes

help chemical reactions

59

peptide bond

bond between adjacent amino acids

60

Linus Pauling

one of the people who discovered the structure of DNA

61

James Watson

found the structure of DNA

62

boiling water

slow to boil; before water can boil- hard to break hydrogen bond- has to absorb enough heat-->therefore, it's going to retain that heat for a long period of time; land area around water line always milder than inland

63

freezing water

good thing water expands by 8-9% when it freezes; most things contract=get smaller=no life forms; ice floats+retains heat

64

keeps oranges freezing

water isolates it

65

even if the ice floats

things underneath functions still

66

capillary action

evaporation of water from leaves pulls water compound from the roots through microscopic tubes in trunk of tree; water supply from cell to cell

67

plasmodesma(ta)

connection between adjacent plant cells

68

transpiration

evaporation of water from leaves

69

in capillary action, cell wall

becomes rigid, forcing water to adjacent, water moves up

70

solvent

dissolving agent

71

solute

any substance that is dissolved

72

aqueous solution

when water is solvent, resulting solution

73

heat

amount of angry associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter

74

temperature

measures the intensity of heat

75

lipids are composed of

glycerols/3 fatty acids

76

lipids

hydrophobic (not mixing with water); stores 9 cal/gram; include fats, oils, and waxes

77

plasma membrane

not a solid thing- floating=way the pact of it works- two layers of lipids-keep too much water from coming in/out (fingers shriveling up)

78

water is a small

molecule

79

fat

consists of a glycerol molecule joined with three fatty acids molecules in dehydration reactions

80

fats (cal/gram); carbohydrates

9 cal/gram; 4 cal/gram

81

saturated fats

comes from animals, solid at room temperature; all single bond

82

unsaturated fats

comes from plants, liquid at room temperature, double or triple bond

83

diets rich in saturated fats may contribute to cardiovascular disease by promoting

atherosclerosis- may lead to heart attack or stroke

84

hydrogenation

manufacturer can convert unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen; also create trans fats

85

steroids

Cholesterol- association to cardiovascular disease; all steroids have a carbon skeleton with fused ring C

86

cholesterol

an essential molecule in your body; key component of the membranes that surround your cells; the "base steroids" from which your body produces other steroids; sex hormones- estrogen and testosterone

87

anabolic steroid

athletes abuse to build up their muscles quickly
side effects: voilent mood swings, depression, liver damage, high cholesterol, shrunken testicles, reduced sex drive, and infertility

88

proteins

50% of dry weight of most cells, instrumental in almost everything cells do; joined by peptide bonds

89

polypeptide

long chains of amino acids

90

wool, hair

protein, possible to change structure- an unfavorable change in temperature, pH, or some other quality of the environment can cause a protein to unravel and lose its normal shape=denaturation of protein
*cooking egg whites
*high fevers

91

nucleic acids

DNA composed of nucleotides that fit together

92

nucleotides

5 carbon sugar-deoxyribose phosphate, nitrogen base

93

DNA (A=T; C=G)

deoxyribonucleic acid; sugar=deoxyribose; double-stranded; makes up chromosomes in nucleus; carries genetic material

94

RNA (A=U; C=G)

bionucleic acid; sugar=ribose; single-stranded; usually in ribosomes making proteins

95

carbohydrates or proteins can store

more and use for energy

96

carbohydrates and proteins each store 4 calories per gram

get more energy from these because we eat more of it

97

margarine

created during WWll to fill a need; was unsaturated

98

amino acids

joined by peptide bonds make up proteins (20 different ones)

99

nitrogen bases
(A=T; C=G)

Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine, Guanine

100

gene

specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequences of a polypeptide

101

the pull of gravity vs. capillary action keeps the Giant Redwoods from being taller normal height

280-320 ft

102

Burl in tree

produce seedlings

103

Fibrous Root

shallow

104

taproot

enables them to get water

105

Muir Woods National Monument

Marin County, California across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco

106

Theodore Roosevelt

created the first national park- Yellowstone National Park in 1903

107

William Kent

1905 (500 acres of Virgin Redwoods) 1908- became a national monument

108

John Muir

started Sierra Club- he immigrated from Scotland around 1850s

109

when sodium chloride dissolves in water, the sodium chloride dissociates into

sodium and chloride ions

110

due to an uneven distribution of its electrons, a water molecule is

slightly charged at each end

111

waxy or oily organic compound are

lipids

112

in polymerization, complex molecules are formed by the joining together of

monomers

113

most substances in the human body are classified as organic compounds because they contain

carbon

114

term least closely related (glucose, fructose, disaccharide, monosaccharide)

disaccharide

115

proteins, unlike carbohydrates, contain

nitrogen

116

when you dissolve salt in water, you produce a mixture called a

solution

117

many lipids are formed by the attachment of three

fatty acids to glycerol

118

the amino acids glycine and alanine bond to form a

dipeptide

119

if all the carbon atoms in a fatty acid chain are joined by single bonds, the fatty acid is said to be

saturated

120

in the body, enzymes

decrease the "start-up" energy of a chemical reaction

121

nucleotides are built up from each of the following basic

6-carbon starch

122

when you shake sugar and sand together in a test tube, you cause them to form a

mixture

123

carbon has the ability to form chains of almost unlimited length by bonding with

other carbon atoms

124

pure water, in which the concentrations of H+ and OH- ions are equal, has a pH of

7

125

when you dissolve instant coffee in water, the coffee is the

solute

126

in dehydration synthesis, two molecules of simple compounds are combined by the

removal of a molecule of water

127

in a chemical reaction, a reactant binds to an enzyme at a region known as the

active site

128

the term that is least closely to the others is

polypeptide

129

a compound that releases hydrogen ions into solution is an

acid

130

polysaccharides are split apart to form monosaccharides in a reaction known as

hydrolysis

131

the structures formed when phospholipids are mixed with water are called

liposomes

132

composed of amino acids

proteins

133

example of a monosaccharide

glucose

134

an example of a steroid that can clog blood vessels

cholesterol

135

example of a polysaccharide

starch, like potato

136

these are typically solid at room temperature

saturated fats

137

these are made up of fats, waxes, and oils

lipids

138

example of a disaccharide

sucrose

139

animal starch; found only in animals, stored in liver

glycogen

140

these contain DNA, found in all nucleated cells

nucleic acids

141

simple sugars, containing only one 6 Carbon ring

monosaccharides

142

"many" sugars, containing 3 or more 6 carbon rings

polysaccharides

143

this makes up the cell walls of plants

cellulose

144

makes up cellular membranes in animal cells, because it ans water do not mix

lipids

145

double sugars, that contain two 6 carbon rings

disaccharides

146

two examples of starchy foods

potatoes, pasta

147

organic compound

compounds that contain carbon

148

inorganic compound

compounds that don't contain carbon

149

what causes Sickle-Cell Anemia

substitution of one amino acid

150

what provides "quick" energy

monosaccharide

151

what provides "long-lasting" energy

polysaccharide

152

principle energy storing molecule in all living things

lipids

153

two things that composed lipids

glycerol, 3 fatty acids

154

"this" must be removed to form a double sugar from two simple sugars

H2O molecule

155

simplest organic compounds

hydro carbon
(methane is simplest)

156

1986 nuclear reactor accident

Chernobyl

157

any molecule that contains carbon can be referred to this

organic compound

158

term for uniting monomers to form a polymer

dehydration synthesis

159

what is it called when water is added to a starch to break it down

hydrolisis

160

name of the process when monomers combine to form more complex molecules

polymerization

161

three types of Carbohydrates and examples of each

1. monosaccharide- glucose
2. disaccharide- sucrose
3. polysaccharide- potato

162

classify: Lard

lipid

163

classify: Chitin

disaccharide

164

classify: fingernails

protein

165

classify: cane sugar

disaccharide

166

classify: starch

polysaccharide

167

classify: fructose

monosaccharide

168

classify: wax

lipid

169

classify: cartilage

protein

170

classify: cellulose

polysaccharide

171

classify: glucose

monosaccharide

172

how long to make one inch of topsoil

100-500 years

173

terracing

method of planting crops on hills at prevent erosions

174

lysozyme

enzyme in tears (found by Fleming)

175

chalaza

(in a bird's egg) each of two twisted membranous strips joining the yolk to the ends of the shell; HOLDS IT IN PLACE IN EGG

176

ovum

the egg cell; n vertebrates, ova are produced by female gonads (sexual glands) called ovaries and all of them are present at birth in mammals and mature via oogenesis

177

brown paper

lipids

178

disacchrides

negative/no test

179

germinating seeds

maltose (disacchride)

180

isotope

different number of neutrons

181

mass number

neutrons and protons

182

ionic bonds

gives up/transfer electrons

183

covalent bond

share

184

hydrogen (polar)

opposite charges

185

peptide

joins amino acids

186

adhesion

water clinging to something else