Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (56):
created classical conditioning. Studied digestion of dogs and their salavation
learning response to stimulus other than the original. A new response does not naturally occur in response to the the stimulus-its learned
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
naturally occurring stimulus, leads to involuntary response
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
involuntary response to naturally occurring stimulus (reflex, physiological, emotional response.) Unlearned response to UCS
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
stimulus is able to produce learned reflex response. Paired with original unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned
=Learned. Neural Stimulus before conditioning- becomes conditioned stimulus when paired with unconditioned stimulus.
Classical Conditioning Principles
CS must come before UCS, CS and UCS must come very close together in time. (contiguity)-ideally only several seconds apart. Neutral stimulus must be paired repeatedly with UCS before conditioning takes place (contingency). CS is usually a stimulus that is distinctive from other competing stimuli.
Stimulus Generalization (CC)
respond to a stimulus similar to original conditioned stimulus with conditioned response.
Process of learning to respond only to some stimuli.
disappearance/ weakening of learned response-CR follows removal or absence of the conditioned stimulus- UCS
reappearance of learned resonse after extinction. Response usually weak and short lived.
Conditioned Emotional Response
emotional response classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli Ex: fear of dogs, and an emotional response to seeing attractive person. May lead to phobias
Classical Conditioning in Humans
Explaining and eliminating fears (Little Albert), counter conditioning, systematic desensitization.
classical conditioning acquired by watching the reaction of another person- Observational learning
involves voluntary behavior learned through the effects of pleasant consequences to responses. Volunatary b
Thorndikes Law of Effect
if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence it will be repeated. If followed by an unpleasant consequence it will tend to not be repeated
stressed the study of only observable measurable behavior.
Operant Conditioning 1
behavior used to operate on the environment. focuses on the effects of the consequences of behavior.
increasing the likelihood of a behavior occurring again.
reinforcer that meets a basic biological need. (hunger thirst.)
reinforcer associated with a primary reinforcer (praise, tokens, gold stars)
add pleasurable consequence to follow a response to behavior (dog treat)
remove, take away unpleasant stimulus to increase behavior . Escape from or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. (Buckle sound if you aren't buckled)
Partial Reinforcement Effect
Response is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses. Response tends to be a resistant to extinction.
reinforcement of each and every correct response.
Partial Reinforcement Schedules
ratio of (# of behaviors) vs Interval (time elapsed) .
fixed (predictable) vs variable (unpredictable).
Fixed Ration Schedule
number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same.
Variable Ratio Schedule
number or responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event.
Fixed Interval Schedule
interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible. Amount of time passing is always the same.
Variable Interval Schedule
interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible. Amount of time different for each trial or event.
follows a response, making it less likely the response will happen again. It decreases behavior. It is the opposite of reinforcement, punishment weakens responses, reinforcement strengthens responses.
Positive Punishment/ Punishment by Application
the addition or experience of an unpleasant stimulus following a response to bad behavior. Positive=add, Punishment=bad behavior
Negative Punishment/ Punishment by Removal
remove or take away a pleasurable stimulus to bad behavior. negative /= take away remove, Punishment = bad behavior
small steps toward goal behavior are reinforced until goal behavior is met.
the steps in behavior leading to a particular goal behavior
removal of reinforcement response drops out
reoccurance of a once extinguished response. Same as with classical conditioning
response occurs with stimuli only similar to the original stimulus
response to a signal that behavior will (or will not) be reinforced.
use of conditioning techniques to create changes in behavior.
desired behavior is rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for desired items or privileges
organism is being "removed" from opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
uses shaping skills broken into smaller steps. Prompts are removed over time. Mostly used with humans but can be used with animals.
Congnative Learning Theory
1950s and 1960s interest in cogitation mental events that take place inside a persons mind while behaving. View began to dominate Experimental Psychology. Key theorists-Tolman, Kohler, Seligman.)
(1930) 3 groups of rats with the same maze. 1 group rewarded every time. 2 group rewarded 10th time, 3 group never rewarded. 1-learned well, 2-relatively well, 3-not well.
learning remains hidden until application is useful.
Kohler (1925) sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem -allows solution to problem to come quickly. Cannot be gained through trial and error learning. "aha" moment
(1975) Studied escape and avoidance learning. Noted dogs who had been unable to aboid shock did not avoid shock when opportunity became available. Created learned helplessness
tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation. History of repeated failures in the past creates belief that nothing can be done. History of repeated failures in the past creates belief that nothing can be done. Depression may result from learned helplessness
learning new behavior by watching a model perform the behavior-Bandura
(1961) children observed and later spontaneously imitated observed aggressive behavior.
Learning/ Performance Distinction
learning can take place without actual performance of the learned Behavior
4 Elements of Observable Behavior
attention, memory, imitation, motivation
to learn through observation. Learner must first attend to the model
learner must be able to retain memory of what was done. Ex: remembering steps in preparing a dish seen on a cooking show.
learner must be capable of reproducing actions of a model.