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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (56):
1

Pavlov

created classical conditioning. Studied digestion of dogs and their salavation

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Classical Conditioning

learning response to stimulus other than the original. A new response does not naturally occur in response to the the stimulus-its learned

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Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

naturally occurring stimulus, leads to involuntary response

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Unconditioned Response (UCR)

involuntary response to naturally occurring stimulus (reflex, physiological, emotional response.) Unlearned response to UCS

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Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

stimulus is able to produce learned reflex response. Paired with original unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned
=Learned. Neural Stimulus before conditioning- becomes conditioned stimulus when paired with unconditioned stimulus.

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Classical Conditioning Principles

CS must come before UCS, CS and UCS must come very close together in time. (contiguity)-ideally only several seconds apart. Neutral stimulus must be paired repeatedly with UCS before conditioning takes place (contingency). CS is usually a stimulus that is distinctive from other competing stimuli.

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Stimulus Generalization (CC)

respond to a stimulus similar to original conditioned stimulus with conditioned response.

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Stimulus Discrimination

Process of learning to respond only to some stimuli.

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Extinction

disappearance/ weakening of learned response-CR follows removal or absence of the conditioned stimulus- UCS

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Spontaneous Recovery

reappearance of learned resonse after extinction. Response usually weak and short lived.

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Conditioned Emotional Response

emotional response classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli Ex: fear of dogs, and an emotional response to seeing attractive person. May lead to phobias

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Classical Conditioning in Humans

Explaining and eliminating fears (Little Albert), counter conditioning, systematic desensitization.

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Vicarious Conditioning

classical conditioning acquired by watching the reaction of another person- Observational learning

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Operant Conditioning

involves voluntary behavior learned through the effects of pleasant consequences to responses. Volunatary b

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Thorndikes Law of Effect

if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence it will be repeated. If followed by an unpleasant consequence it will tend to not be repeated

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Skinner's Contribution

stressed the study of only observable measurable behavior.

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Operant Conditioning 1

behavior used to operate on the environment. focuses on the effects of the consequences of behavior.

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Reinforcement

increasing the likelihood of a behavior occurring again.

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Primary Reinforcement

reinforcer that meets a basic biological need. (hunger thirst.)

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Secondary Reinforcement

reinforcer associated with a primary reinforcer (praise, tokens, gold stars)

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Positive reinforcement

add pleasurable consequence to follow a response to behavior (dog treat)

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Negative Reinforcement

remove, take away unpleasant stimulus to increase behavior . Escape from or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. (Buckle sound if you aren't buckled)

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Partial Reinforcement Effect

Response is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses. Response tends to be a resistant to extinction.

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Continuous Reinforcement

reinforcement of each and every correct response.

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Partial Reinforcement Schedules

ratio of (# of behaviors) vs Interval (time elapsed) .
fixed (predictable) vs variable (unpredictable).

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Fixed Ration Schedule

number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same.

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Variable Ratio Schedule

number or responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event.

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Fixed Interval Schedule

interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible. Amount of time passing is always the same.

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Variable Interval Schedule

interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible. Amount of time different for each trial or event.

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Punishment

follows a response, making it less likely the response will happen again. It decreases behavior. It is the opposite of reinforcement, punishment weakens responses, reinforcement strengthens responses.

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Positive Punishment/ Punishment by Application

the addition or experience of an unpleasant stimulus following a response to bad behavior. Positive=add, Punishment=bad behavior

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Negative Punishment/ Punishment by Removal

remove or take away a pleasurable stimulus to bad behavior. negative /= take away remove, Punishment = bad behavior

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Shaping

small steps toward goal behavior are reinforced until goal behavior is met.

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Successive Approximations

the steps in behavior leading to a particular goal behavior

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Extinction

removal of reinforcement response drops out

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Spontaneous Recovery

reoccurance of a once extinguished response. Same as with classical conditioning

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Generalization

response occurs with stimuli only similar to the original stimulus

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Discrimination

response to a signal that behavior will (or will not) be reinforced.

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Behavior Modification

use of conditioning techniques to create changes in behavior.

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Token Economy

desired behavior is rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for desired items or privileges

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Time Out

organism is being "removed" from opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement

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Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

uses shaping skills broken into smaller steps. Prompts are removed over time. Mostly used with humans but can be used with animals.

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Congnative Learning Theory

1950s and 1960s interest in cogitation mental events that take place inside a persons mind while behaving. View began to dominate Experimental Psychology. Key theorists-Tolman, Kohler, Seligman.)

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Edward Tolman

(1930) 3 groups of rats with the same maze. 1 group rewarded every time. 2 group rewarded 10th time, 3 group never rewarded. 1-learned well, 2-relatively well, 3-not well.

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Latent Learning

learning remains hidden until application is useful.

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Insight Learning

Kohler (1925) sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem -allows solution to problem to come quickly. Cannot be gained through trial and error learning. "aha" moment

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Martin Seligman

(1975) Studied escape and avoidance learning. Noted dogs who had been unable to aboid shock did not avoid shock when opportunity became available. Created learned helplessness

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Learned Helplessess

tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation. History of repeated failures in the past creates belief that nothing can be done. History of repeated failures in the past creates belief that nothing can be done. Depression may result from learned helplessness

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Observational Learning

learning new behavior by watching a model perform the behavior-Bandura

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Bandura

(1961) children observed and later spontaneously imitated observed aggressive behavior.

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Learning/ Performance Distinction

learning can take place without actual performance of the learned Behavior

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4 Elements of Observable Behavior

attention, memory, imitation, motivation

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Attention

to learn through observation. Learner must first attend to the model

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Memory

learner must be able to retain memory of what was done. Ex: remembering steps in preparing a dish seen on a cooking show.

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Imitation

learner must be capable of reproducing actions of a model.

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Motivation

learner must have desire to perform the action.