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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (14):


A complex human organisation, a collection of people bound by shared institutions that define how human relations should be conducted


Ethnic identity/ethnicity

A person's relation to other members of society
- A set of institutions that bind people together
- These institutions conclude: language, religion, geographical location, appearance, history, etc.
- Shared identity: ascription; assigning of particular quality at birth



A group that desires self-government, often through an independent state



A pride in one's people and the belief in their own sovereign political destiny that is seperate from those of others/belief that they have a unique political destiny



An individual or group's relation to the state; those who are citizens swear allegiance to the state, and that state in return is obligated to provide rights to those individuals or members of that group.
- purely political and more easily changed than ethnicity
- basis for patriotism: pride in one's state and citizenship



A sovereign state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to embody and represent


Political attitudes

Describe views regarding the necessary pace and scope of change in balance between freedom and equality (radicals, liberals, conservatives, reactionaries)


Political ideology

Defined as sets of political values held by individuals regarding the fundamental goals of politics. Concerned with the ideal relation between freedom and equality for all individuals and the proper role of institutions in achieving or maintaining this relation.



Hostile to the idea of individual freedom and also rejects the notion of equality. Rests on the idea that people and groups can be classified in terms of inferiority and superiority, justifying hierarchy among them



Rejects the notion of the state altogether. Belief that private property leads to inequality, but oppose the idea that the state can solve this problem.
- State is threat to freedom and equality
- Equality can only be achieved by eliminating the state entirely



Seeks to unite religion with the state, or rather make faith the sovereign authority, that is to create theocracy


Name 4 examples of political attitudes

- Radicals: believe in dramatic, often revolutionary change of the existing political, social, or economic order; system needs to be scrapped in favour of a new order
- Liberals: favour evolutionary change; change can happen within the system
- Conservative: question whether any significant or profound change in existing institutions is necessary
- Reactionaries: seek to restore political, social, and economic institutions; changing back to previous regime


Liberal democracy

A system of political, social, and economic liberties, supported by competition, participation, and contestation (such as voting)


Social democracy (socialism)

- Accepts a strong role for private ownership and market forces while maintaining an emphasis on economic equality.
- A state with strong and capacity and autonomy is considered important to ensure greater economic equality through specific policies (job protection, social benefits)
- Commitment to equality might mean that social democracy may limit freedom more than liberalism