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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (50):
1

Amino Acid

organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group. serves as the monomer of proteins

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Amino Group

a chemical group of consisting of nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms

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anabolic steroid

a synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects

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carbohydrate

member of the class of biological molecuies consisting of single monomer, two monomer, and polymonomer sugars

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carbonyl group

chemical group consisting of a carbon atom double bonded to to an oxygen atom

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carboxyl group

chemical group consisting of carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and a hydroxyl group

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carboxyl group

chemical group consisting of carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and a hydroxyl group

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cellulose

structural polysacch of plant cell walls composed of glucose monomers. cellulose molecules linked by hydrogen bonds into cable like fibrils

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chitin

structural polysachh found in many fungal cells and exoskeleton of arthropods

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cholesterol

steroid that is important component of animal cell membranes, precursor to synthesis of other steroids like hormones

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dehydration reaction

chemical reaction in which two atoms become covalently bonded to each other by the removal of water

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denaturation

protein unravels losing structure and function. can be due to changes in ph, salt concentration or high temps. also refers to unwinding of two strands of dna

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dna

double stranded helical nucleic molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers, deoxyribose sugars, nitro bases ACGT

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disaccharide

sugar molecule consisting of two monosacc linked together by a dehydration reaction

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double helix

native form of dna referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands interwound into a spiral shape

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enzyme

macromolecule, usually a protein that serves as biological catalyst, changing the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction

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fat

lipid composed of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule (triglyceride). most fats function as energy storage molecules

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functional group

specific config of atoms attached to carbon skeletons of of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions

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gene

hereditary info consisting of specific nucleotide sequence in dna (rna in some viruses), most of genes of eukaryotic cells are located on chromosomal dna

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glycogen

extensive branched glucose storage polysacch found in liver and muscle cells. animal equivalent of starch

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hydrocarbon

organic compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen

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hydrolysis

chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water

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hydrophilic

pertaining to polar or charged molecules that are soluble in water

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hydrophobic

pertaining to non-polar molecules that don't dissolve in water

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hydroxyl group

chemical group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom

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isomer

compound with same molecular formula but different structures and properties

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lipid

compound consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by non-polar covalent bonds making them largely hydrophobic. includes fats, phospolipids and steroids and are not dissolvable in water

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macromolecule

giant molecule formed by joining of smaller molecules usually by a dehydration reaction. a protein, carbohydrate or nucleic acid

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methyl group

carbon atom bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms

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monomer

sub unit that serves as a building block of a polymer

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monosaccharide

simplest carbohydrate, ch2o

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nucleic acid

polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers. serves as a blueprint for proteins, and through the actions of proteins, for all cellular and structural activities

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nucleotide

building block of nucleic acids, 5 carbon sugar covalently bonded to nitrogenous base and 1+ phosphate group

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organic compound

compound containing the element carbon, and usually hydrogen.

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peptide bond

covalent bond between two amino acid units in a polypeptide. formed by dehydration reaction

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phosphate group

phosphorous atom bonded to 4 oxygen atoms

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phosphorlipide

a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule

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polymer

various compounds made of smaller monomer compounds linked together (cellulose, is natural, nylon is artificial

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polypeptide

chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds

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primary structure

first level of protein structure; sequence of amino acids making polypeptide chain

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protein

molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific 3d shape

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quarternary structure

fourth level of protein structure; shape resulting from association of 2+ polypeptide units

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RNA

nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers, ribose sugars, and nitro base ACGU

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saturated fatty acid

fatty acid where all carbons in hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds and maximum number of hydrogen atoms are connected to carbon skeleton

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secondary structure

second level of protein structure; regular pattern of folds of polypeptide chain

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starch

storage polysaccharide in plants, polymer of glucose

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steroid

lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached

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tertiary structure

third level of protein structure ; overall 3d shape of polypeptide due to interactions of R group of amino acids making up the chain

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trans fat

unsaturated fat linked to health risk that is formed artificially by the hydrogenation of oils

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unsaturated fatty acid

fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in hydrocarbon tail. lacks maximum number of hydrogen atoms