Chapter 3: Ancient Egypt Definitions/Photos Flashcards Preview

EDVS 1660: History 1 > Chapter 3: Ancient Egypt Definitions/Photos > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3: Ancient Egypt Definitions/Photos Deck (73):
1

Hierarchic Scale

Use of difference in size to indicate relative importance

2

Composite Pose

Combining different viewpoints within a single representation

3

Hieroglyph

Picture writing; words and ideas in symbol forms

4

Sacrophagus

Stone coffin

5

Papyrus

Material from pithy stem of water plant (used in sheets)

6

Mastaba

Tomb rectangular in shape with sloping sides and flat roof

7

Sphinx

Figure of imaginary creature having head of man, or animal and the body of a lion

8

Cannon

Heavy piece of artillery, mounted on wheels and used in warfare

9

Grid

System of regularly spaced horizontally and vertically crossed lines

10

Necropolis

Large cemetery or burial area; literally "a city of the dead"

11

Lotus

Plant

12

Portico

Projecting roof or porch supported by columns, usually marking an entrance

13

Gneiss

Metamorphic rock with banded foliated structure, usually coarse-grained

14

Scribe

Person who copies out documents (Kai)

15

Lower Egypt

North of Egypt where nile stretched out with its several branches to form the Nile Delta

16

Upper Egypt

Stop of land on both sides of the Nile, extends between Nubai and downriver to lower egypt

17

Imhotep

Egyptian polymath who served under the 3rd Dynasty kind Djoser as chancellor

18

Khafre

King of 4th Dynasty ruled 2520-2492 BCE and was the son of Khufu

19

Menkaure

King of 4th Dynasty in the Old kingdom, ruled (2490-2472 BCE) successor of king Khafre

20

Khufu

Second pharaoh during 4th Dynasty. (2490-24720 BCE) commissioned the great pyramid of Giza.

21

Photo: The Palette of Narmer

Hierakonpolis. 2950 BCE.

- Hieroglyphs
- Hierarchic scale
- Composite poses
- Narmer Wears bull's tail
- Ceremonial palette, but with mixing Saucer

22

Twelfth Dynasty

1935-1758 BCE

23

Thirteenth Dynasty

1755-1630 BCE

24

Photo: Step Pyramid and Sham Buildings

funerary complex of Djsor. Saqqara. 3rd Dynasty. C. 2630 - 2575 BCE.

- Earliest know monumental architecture in Egypt
- Designed by Imhotep, first architect in history to be identified
- Stairway to the sun of god (ra)
- Built over kings tomb for protection
- Djoser an observer of rituals from afterlife

25

Photo: Great Pyramids of Giza

4th Dynasty. C. 2575-2450 BCE.

- Oldest & largest; pyramid of Khufu
- Processional with ceremonies from east bank of Nile to pyramid tomb on west bank
- Oriented to compass points

26

Photo: Great Sphinx

Funerary complex of Khafre, Giza. Old Kingdom. C - 2520-2494 BCE.

- Near khafre's valley temple
- Khafre's head on temple body of lion

27

Photo: Valley Temple of Khafre Giza

Old kingdom. C 2520-2494 BCE.

- Walls & piers support flat roof
- Clerestory windows for light
- Polished alabaster floors
- Houses over-life-size statues of Khafre

28

Photo: Khafre, Giza

Valley Temple of Khafre. 4th Dynasty, C. 2520-2494 BCE.

- House the falcon god
- Lions form 3 legs
- Intertwined lotus (Upper Egypt) and papyrus (Lower Egypt) intertwined beneath the seat indicate king's power overall of Egypt
- Stone produces blue glow in sunlight, the celestial colour of Horus (god of the heavens)
- Permanence conveyed in pose, facial expression, material.

29

Photo: Menkaure and a queen, probably Khamerenebty II

From Giza. 4th Dynasty. 2490-2472 BCE

- Conventional calm and dignified pose with queen's embrace
- Menkaure shown youthful & athletic in conventional kilt and headdresses, left food forward, arm's straight, fists clenching cylindrical objects
- Queen's rounded torso contrasts king's
- Traces of paint remain: red on the king per tradition, black on the queen's hair

30

Photo: Seated Scribe

Found near the tomb of kai. Saqqara 5th Dynasty. C. 2450-2325 BCE.

- More relaxed/life-like than statues of royalty
- Round head. Close-cropped hair, alert expression
- Individually
- Eyes inlaid with polished crystal with pupils slight off center
- Soft physique

31

Photo: Watching a hippo hunt, tomb of Ti

5th Dynasty. C. 2450-2325 BCE.

- Tomb wall painting using representational conventions
- River viewed from above, while animals in river shown in profile
- Boats shown straight - on
- Papyrus in vertacl lines with prey animals stalking birds among flora
- Ti in composite post and hierarchically scaled, while hunters are more life-like

32

Photo: Sensuret III from Dier-el-Bahri.

12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom, c 1850 BCE.

- Less serene and confident than imaged from the Old Kingdom
- Frontality of pose similar
- Changing sensibilities or conventions?

33

Photo: Picking Figs

Wall painting from the tomb of Khumhortep. Beni Hasan. 12th Dynasty. C. 1890 BCE.

- Farm workers & baboons
- Upper torsos of figures more lifelike than royal composite poses

34

Photo: Stele of the Gatekeeper of the Royal Treasury Maety.

12th Dynasty to middle Kingdom.

- Barefoot
- Elaborate broad collar, bracelets, and knee-length kilt
- Offering table with ten feathers
- Perfume vessel
- Offerings above feathers
- Emphasis on line
- Scene composed in registers or bands with canon proportions

35

Photo: Judgment of Hunefer befor Osiris

19th D, c. 1285 BCE

- Anubis leads him by the hand (left)
- Ma'at appears atop the balancing arm of the scale wearing a feather headress
- Ammit, the dreaded "easter of the dead" part crocodile, lion, hoppo watches sign from ibis-headed god Thoth,
- Hunefer passes test, and Horus presents him to enthroned Osiris
- Nepthys and Isis supporting him in back

36

Photo: Karomama

3rd Int per, 22nd Dynasty, c. 945-715 BCE

- Extraordinary most surviving portrait of Egypt:
- Divine consort of Amun and member of a community of virgin priestesses selected from the pharaoh's family or retinue who were dedicated to him
- Karomama.. Daughter of king Osorkan I (20th D, r.c 985-978 BCE)
- Identified as priestesses rather than princess

37

King Djoser

(2650-2631 BCE)

○ Commissioned the most earliest known architecture in Egypt
○ Designer was Imhotep (served as Prime Minister)

38

King Khufu

2251-2528 BCE

39

Khafre

2520-2494 BCE

- son of khufu

40

Menakaure

2490-2472 BCE

41

Mentuhotep

(11th D, 2010 - 1938 BCE)
- Gained power in Thebes
- Reasserted royal power and founded the Middle Kingdom

42

Senusret II

1842-1837 BCE

43

Snusret III

1836-1818 BCE

Built the town Kahun

44

Thutmose I

1493-1482 BCE

45

Thutmose III

1479-1425 BCE

- Extended Egypt's influence alone the eastern Mediterranean coast as far as the region of present-day Syria
- First to refer himself as Pharaoh

46

Amenhotep III

1390-1353 BCE

47

Amenhotep IV

1353-1336 BCE

48

Tutankhaten

1332-1322 BCE

- Son of Amun
- The one to return stuff to traditional beliefs

49

Sety I

1290-1279 BCE

50

Ramses II

1279-1213 BCE

- Son of Sety

51

Osorkan I

985-978 BCE

52

Taharqo

690-664 BCE

53

Cleopatra VII

51-30 BCE

54

Hatshepsut

1473-1458 BCE

FEMALE PHARAOH

55

Photo: Mask of King Tut

1327 BCE

- Valley of kings
- Flail and Crook
- Sacrophagus (Stone coffin)

56

Photo: Reconstruction Drawing of Djosers Funeraray Complex

- Saqqara
- 2630-2575 BCE
- Stone and wood

57

Photo: Step Pyramid and Sham building, Complex of Djoser

- Ziggurat
- Stairway to son god Ra
- 92 foot shaft
- Adjacent funerary temple

58

Photo: Butcher

- Tomb of Nikau-inpu
- 5th d 2450-2325 BCE

59

Photo: Stele of Amenemhat

Assasif

- 11th D, 2000
- Food offerings
- Wife Lyi, and son Antef
- Convention of Skin

60

Photo: Reconstruction Drawing of The Great Temple of Amun at Karnak

Karnak

- 1579-1075 BCE
- Vast Hall filled with columns (Hypostyle)

61

Photo: Reconstruction of Hypo Hall

Karnak

- 1292 - 1190 BCE
- Sety and son Ramses

62

Photo: Columns with Papyriform and Bud Capitals, Hypostyle Hall, Great Temple of Amun,

Karnak

- 19th D
- Sety and Ramses
- Carving on Columns

63

Photo: Hatshepsut Kneeling

- Deir - el - bahir

1423-1458 BCE

- Shown as king
- mile away from valley of kings

64

Photo: Funerary Temple of Hatshepsut

1473-1458 BCE

- Far left ramp in drawing
- Dier el Bahri
- Base of funerary temple is mentuotep

65

Photo: Drawing of Hatshepsut Temple

- Dier el Bahri
- Flat Dessert to sloping hillside
- Axial Plan ..
- Causeway lined with sphinxes

66

Photo: Ramose Brother May and his wife

- Tomb of Ramose
- 1375 - 1365 BCE

67

Photo: Collosal Figure of Akhenhaten

- Gompaaten Temple
- Akhenhaten
- Starling Stylizations, physical distortions
- Placed oriental movement on son
- Facial features include distorted and exaggerations
- Pictorial Relief Sculptures (2D drawing on 3D surface)

68

Photo: Akhenhaten and his Fam

- 1353-1336 BCE
- 2 daughters
- Shaved heads
- Pictorial Relief Sculpture
- Recieving blessings from Aken

69

Photo: Queen Tiy

- Medinet-El-Ghurab
- 1352 BCE
- Reveals bone structure
- Portrait altered once son came to power

70

Photo: Nefertiti

- Akhen's wife
- 1353-1336 BCE
- Stucco
- Painted limestone
- Smoothed out

71

Photo: Fish Shaped perfume bottle

Akhen

1353-1356 BCE

72

Photo: Nefertiti Making an Offering

- Tomb of nef
- Valley of queens
- 1290 - 1224
- Making offering to Isis
- Shown Royalty

73

Photo: Sphinx of Taharqo

- Tikawa, Nubia
- 680 BCE
- 2 Cobras represent 2 kingdoms
- Known as African King by the facial expressions