Chapter 3 : Blood Supply of the Central System (2) Flashcards Preview

UNAIR - James D Fix > Chapter 3 : Blood Supply of the Central System (2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 : Blood Supply of the Central System (2) Deck (30):
1

1. The thalamus, hypothalamus, and subthalamus are perfused by the (A) anterior choroidal artery (B) medial striate artery (C) anterior communicating artery (D) posterior communicating artery (E) anterior cerebral artery

1-D. The thalamus, hypothalamus, and subthalamus are irrigated by the posterior communicating artery and the thalamoperforating branches of the posterior cerebral artery.

2

2. The optic chiasm is supplied by all of thefollowing arteries EXCEPT the (A) internal carotid artery (B) anterior communicating artery (C) anterior choroidal artery (D) posterior communicating artery (E) anterior cerebral artery

2-C. The anterior choroidal artery lies outside of the circle of Willis and does not supply the optic chiasm.

3

3. The internal capsule is supplied by all ofthe following arteries EXCEPT the (A) internal carotid artery (B) posterior cerebral artery (C) anterior choroidal artery (D) anterior cerebral artery (E) middle cerebral artery

3-B. The internal capsule is supplied by the anterior cerebral artery, the internal carotid artery, the anterior choroidal artery, and the middle cerebral artery.

4

4. All of the following statements concerningthe internal carotid artery are correctEXCEPT it (A) enters the skull via the sphenoid bone (B) lies within the cavernous sinus (C) gives off direct branches to the internalcapsule (D) gives rise to the anterior choroidal artery (E) gives rise to the posterior communicatingartery

4-A. The internal carotid artery enters the skull via the carotid canal of the temporal bone.

5

5. All of the following statements concerningthe vertebral artery are correct EXCEPT it (A) may give off a posterior spinal artery (B) gives rise to the labyrinthine artery (C) is a branch of the subclavian artery (D) gives rise to the anterior spinal artery (E) gives rise to the posterior inferior cerebellarartery

5-B. The vertebral artery, a branch of the subclavian artery, may give off a posterior spinal artery and does give off an anterior spinal artery. The posterior spinal artery is most commonly a branch of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery is the first major branch of the basilar artery and usually (in 85% of the population) gives rise to the labyrinthine artery. In the remaining cases, the labyrinthine artery is a branch of the basilar artery. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery is the largest branch of the vertebral artery.

6

6. The cavernous sinus and its lateral wallcontain all of the following structures EXCEPTthe (A) carotid siphon (B) oculomotor, abducent, and trochlear nerves (C) ophthalmic and maxillary nerves (D) optic nerve (E) postganglionic sympathetic fibers

6-D. The cavernous sinus and its lateral wall contain the carotid siphon; the oculomotor, abducent, and trochlear nerves; a sympathetic plexus; and the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve. The optic nerve and ophthalmic artery reach the orbit via the optic canal.

7

7. All of the following statements concerning the ophthalmic artery are correct EXCEPT it (A) enters the orbit via the superior orbitalfissure (B) is a branch of the internal carotid artery (C) accompanies the optic nerve to the orbit (D) supplies the inner layers of the retina (E) gives rise to the central artery of the retina

7-A. The ophthalmic artery is the first major branch of the internal carotid artery. It reaches the orbit with the optic nerve via the optic canal. It gives rise to the central artery of the retina, which perfuses the inner five layers of the retina. The ophthalmic nerve, a division of the trigeminal nerve, enters the orbit with the ophthalmic vein via the superior orbital fissure.

8

8. All of the following statements concerningthe middle meningeal artery are correctEXCEPT (A) it is usually a branch of the maxillaryartery (B) it enters the cranium through the foramenspinosum (C) laceration results in epidural hemorrhage (D) it supplies most of the dura of the calvarium (E) it supplies the dura of the posterior cranial Fossa

8-E. The middle meningeal artery usually is a branch of the maxillary artery, which enters the cranium via the foramen spinosum and supplies most of the dura of the calvarium. Laceration of this artery leads to epidural hemorrhage (hematoma). The artery and its accompanying dural veins lie between the periosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. The dura of the posterior fossa is supplied by branches of the ascending pharyngeal, vertebral, and occipital arteries (posterior meningeal arteries).

9

9. Is not an artery of the circle of Willis (A) Anterior cerebral artery (B) Middle cerebral artery (C) Posterior cerebral artery (D) Anterior choroidal artery (E) Anterior communicating artery

9-D. The anterior choroidal artery is not an artery of the circle of Willis.

10

10. Provides the major blood supply to the midbrain (A) Anterior cerebral artery (B) Middle cerebral artery (C) Posterior cerebral artery (D) Anterior choroidal artery (E) Anterior communicating artery

10-C. The posterior cerebral artery provides the major blood supply to the midbrain.

11

11. Supplies Broca's speech area (A) Anterior cerebral artery (B) Middle cerebral artery (C) Posterior cerebral artery (D) Anterior choroidal artery (E) Anterior communicating artery

11-B. The middle cerebral artery supplies Broca's speech area.

12

12. Supplies the visual cortex (A) Anterior cerebral artery (B) Middle cerebral artery (C) Posterior cerebral artery (D) Anterior choroidal artery (E) Anterior communicating artery

12-C. The posterior cerebral artery supplies the visual cortex of the occipital lobe.

13

13. Supplies the foot area of the sensory andmotor cortex (A) Anterior cerebral artery (B) Middle cerebral artery (C) Posterior cerebral artery (D) Anterior choroidal artery (E) Anterior communicating artery

13-A. The anterior cerebral artery supplies the medial surface of the hemisphere, including the motor and sensory areas for the leg and foot.

14

14. Usually gives rise to the artery that suppliesthe inner ear (A) Posterior cerebral artery (B) Superior cerebellar artery (C) Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (D) Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (E) Anterior spinal artery

14-C. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery usually gives rise to the labyrinthine artery, which supplies the structures of the inner ear (i.e., the cochlea and vestibular apparatus).

15

15. Supplies the facial nucleus and the spinaltrigeminal nucleus and tract (A) Posterior cerebral artery (B) Superior cerebellar artery (C) Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (D) Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (E) Anterior spinal artery

15-C. The facial nucleus and the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract are supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery.

16

16. Is the terminal branch of the basilar artery (A) Posterior cerebral artery (B) Superior cerebellar artery (C) Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (D) Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (E) Anterior spinal artery

16-A. The posterior cerebral artery is the terminal branch of the basilar artery.

17

17. Supplies the deep cerebellar nuclei (A) Posterior cerebral artery (B) Superior cerebellar artery (C) Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (D) Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (E) Anterior spinal artery

17-B. The superior cerebellar artery supplies the superior surface of the cerebellum and the cerebellar nuclei (dentate nucleus).

18

18. Supplies the nucleus ambiguous (A) Posterior cerebral artery (B) Superior cerebellar artery (C) Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (D) Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (E) Anterior spinal artery

18-D. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery supplies the dorsolateral medullary field, including the nucleus ambiguus.

19

19. An aneurysm of this artery may cause athird nerve palsy

Q image thumb

19-E. An aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery may cause a third nerve palsy.

20

20. Irrigates the posterior limb of the internal capsule

Q image thumb

20-D. The anterior choroidal artery irrigates the posterior limb of the internal capsule.

21

21. Occlusion of this artery results in a fluentreceptive aphasia

Q image thumb

21-C. Occlusion of the proximal stem of the left middle cerebral artery results in Wernicke's aphasia, a fluent receptive aphasia.

22

22. An aneurysm of this artery may result in Horner's syndrome

Q image thumb

22-B. An aneurysm of the internal carotid artery within the cavernous sinus can interrupt postganglionic sympathetic fibers, resulting in Horner's syndrome.

23

23. Occlusion of this artery results in infarction of the paracentral lobule with Babinski's sign

Q image thumb

23-A. The anterior cerebral artery perfuses the mesial aspect of the hemisphere from the frontal pole to the parieto-occipital sulcus, including the paracentral lobule. The paracentral lobule gives rise to corticospinal fibers to the contralateral foot and leg. Destruction of these fibers results in the Babinski's sign.

24

24. Thrombosis may result in an abducent palsy

Q image thumb

24-A. Cavernous sinus thrombosis may result in cranial nerve palsies including CN III, CN IV, CN VI, CN V-l, and CN V-2.

25

25. Drains the deep cerebral veins

Q image thumb

25-E. The great cerebral vein of Galen drains the deep cerebral veins that drain the thalamus and basal ganglia. The vein of Galen empties into the straight sinus.

26

26. Marks the site of the foramen of Monro

Q image thumb

26-B. The venous angle marks the site of the interventricular foramen of Monro; it is the point where the septal and thalamostriate veins meet.

27

27. Receives the arachnoid granulations

Q image thumb

27-C. The superior sagittal sinus receives cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via the arachnoid granulations.

28

28. Receives blood from the ophthalmic veins

Q image thumb

28-A. The inferior and superior ophthalmic veins drain into the cavernous sinus.

29

29. Laceration results in subdural hemorrhage

Q image thumb

29-D. Laceration of the superior cerebral veins (bridging veins) results in subdural hemorrhage (hematoma).

30

30. Receives blood from the straight, sagittal,superior, and transverse sinuses

Q image thumb

30-F. The confluence of the sinuses (torcular Herophili) receives blood from the straight, sagittal, superior, and transverse sinuses.