Chapter 3 - Cells Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology - Kuntzman > Chapter 3 - Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Cells Deck (26)
1

Description and function:
plasma membrane

outer boundary of the cell; phospholipid bi-layer w proteins & CHO
job: protection, controls movement in and out of the cell; cell-cell comunication

2

Description and function:
microvilli

folds of MB to increase surface area for absorption or secretion

3

Description and function:
nucleus

large, spherical body that is composed of nucleoli and chomatin, enclosed by a nuclear envelope with pares
control center; DNA withing the genes directs cellularee activities and cellular structure

4

Description and function:
nucleolus

small spherical body or bodies w in the nucleus
creates and assembles rRNA

5

Description and function:
cytoplasm

Cytosol plus all organelles except the nucleus.
Semifluid portion of cytoplasm in which organelles and inclusions are suspended and solutes are dissolved. Also called intracellular fluid.

6

Description and function:
Organelles

A permanent structure within a cell with characteristic morphology that is specialized to serve a specific function in cellular activities.

7

Description and function:
mitochondria

A double-membraned organelle that plays a central role in the production of ATP; known as the “powerhouse” of the cell.

8

Description and function:
Rough ER

A network of channels running through the cytoplasm of a cell that serves in intracellular transportation, support, storage, synthesis, and packaging of molecules. Portions of ER where ribosomes are attached to the outer surface are called rough ER; portions that have no ribosomes are called smooth ER.

9

Description and function:
Golgi complex

An organelle in the cytoplasm of cells consisting of four to six flattened sacs (cisternae), stacked on one another, with expanded areas at their ends; functions in processing, sorting, packaging, and delivering proteins and lipids to the plasma membrane, lysosomes, and secretory vesicles.

10

Description and function:
lysosomes

An organelle in the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a single membrane and containing powerful digestive enzymes.

11

Description and function:
peroxisomes

Organelle similar in structure to a lysosome that contains enzymes that use molecular oxygen to oxidize various organic compounds; such reactions produce hydrogen peroxide; abundant in liver cells.

12

Description and function:
Cytoskeleton

Complex internal structure of cytoplasm consisting of microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.

13

Description and function:
Centrosomes (centrioles)

A dense network of small protein fibers near the nucleus of a cell, containing a pair of centrioles and pericentriolar material.

14

Description and function:
Cilia

A hair or hairlike process projecting from a cell that may be used to move the entire cell or to move substances along the surface of the cell. Plural is cilia.

15

Description and function:
flagella

A hairlike, motile process on the extremity of a bacterium, protozoan, or sperm cell. Plural is flagella (fla-JEL-a).

16

Ligand

A chemical substance that binds to a specific receptor.

17

Extracellular fluid

Fluid outside body cells, such as interstitial fluid and plasma.

18

Endocytosis

The uptake into a cell of large molecules and particles in which a Duct of Wirsung See Pancreatic duct.

19

Exocytosis

A process in which membrane-enclosed secretory vesicles form inside the cell, fuse with the plasma membrane, and release their contents into the interstitial fluid; achieves secretion of materials from a cell.

20

Phagocytosis

The process by which phagocytes ingest and destroy microbes, cell debris, and other foreign matter.

21

Microfilament

Protein in cytoskeleton, responsible for basic shape, cellular locomotion, muscle contractions, movement during cell division.

22

Microtubule

Long strings of coiled tubulin that serve as tracks for organelle movement.

23

Intermediate filament

Protein filament, ranging from 8 to 12 nm in diameter, that may provide structural reinforcement, hold organelles in place, and give shape to a cell.

24

Ribosome

A cellular structure in the cytoplasm of cells, composed of a small subunit and a large subunit that contain ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins; the site of protein synthesis.

25

Proteasome

Tiny cellular organelle in cytosol and nucleus containing proteases that destroy unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins.

26

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

RNA that takes information from DNA into the cytoplasm.