chapter 3 consciousness and the two-track mind recall Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 3 consciousness and the two-track mind recall Deck (43):
1

consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

2

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

3

dual processing

the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.

4

blindsight

a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it.

5

selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on particular stimulus.

6

inattentional blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

7

change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment.

8

circadian rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.

9

REM sleep

rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.

10

Alpha waves

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.

11

Sleep

periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.

12

hallucinations

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.

13

delta waves

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.

14

Insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.

15

narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

16

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

17

Night terrors

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terror occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.

18

Dream

a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.

19

manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).

20

latent content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content).

21

REM rebound

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).

22

hypnosis

a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

23

posthypnotic suggestion

a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.

24

dissociation

a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.

25

psychoactive drug

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.

26

tolerance

the diminishing effect with regular use of the some dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger does before experiencing the drug's effect.

27

addiction

compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences.

28

withdrawal

the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.

29

physical dependence

a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.

30

psychological dependence

a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.

31

depressants

drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

32

alcohol dependence

(popularly known as alcoholism). Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal if suspended, and a drive to continue use.

33

Barbiturates

drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.

34

Opiates

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessoning pain and anxiety.

35

Stimulants

drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, and methamphetamine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

36

Amphetamines

drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.

37

Nicotine

a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco.

38

Methamphetamine

a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.

39

Ecstasy (MDMA)

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.

40

hallucinogens

psychedelic (“mind-manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.

41

LSD

a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).

42

Near-death experience

an altered sate of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.

43

THC

the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.