chapter 3 consciousness and the two-track mind recognition Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > chapter 3 consciousness and the two-track mind recognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 3 consciousness and the two-track mind recognition Deck (43):
1

our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

consciousness

2

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

cognitive neuroscience

3

the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.

dual processing

4

a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it.

blindsight

5

the focusing of conscious awareness on particular stimulus.

selective attention

6

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

inattentional blindness

7

failing to notice changes in the environment.

change blindness

8

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.

circadian rhythm

9

rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.

REM sleep

10

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.

Alpha waves

11

periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.

Sleep

12

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.

hallucinations

13

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.

delta waves

14

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.

Insomnia

15

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

narcolepsy

16

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

sleep apnea

17

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terror occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.

Night terrors

18

a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.

Dream

19

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).

manifest content

20

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content).

latent content

21

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).

REM rebound

22

a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

hypnosis

23

a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.

posthypnotic suggestion

24

a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.

dissociation

25

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.

psychoactive drug

26

the diminishing effect with regular use of the some dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger does before experiencing the drug's effect.

tolerance

27

compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences.

addiction

28

the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.

withdrawal

29

a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.

physical dependence

30

a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.

psychological dependence

31

drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

depressants

32

(popularly known as alcoholism). Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal if suspended, and a drive to continue use.

alcohol dependence

33

drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.

Barbiturates

34

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessoning pain and anxiety.

Opiates

35

drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, and methamphetamine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

Stimulants

36

drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.

Amphetamines

37

a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco.

Nicotine

38

a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.

Methamphetamine

39

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.

Ecstasy (MDMA)

40

psychedelic (“mind-manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.

hallucinogens

41

a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).

LSD

42

an altered sate of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.

Near-death experience

43

the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.

THC