Flashcards in chapter 3: equations, the mole, and chemical formulas Deck (97):
stochiometry: the study of .... relationships involving the
quantitative; substances in chemical reactions
knowledge of ... is central to chemistry
how different substances react
equations compactly describe
Reactants are the substances that are
product is the substance/substances that are
chemical equation describes the .. and ... of ... and ... in a chemical reaction
identities; relative amounts; reactants; products
balanced equation is consistent with the
law of conservation of mass
coefficient represents the number of ...
units of each substance involved in the equation
use the lowest possible
coefficients when balancing
do not alter the subscripts in any of the substances when
fractional coefficients are generally avoided because a
fraction of a molecule cannot exist
substances dissolved in water (aqueous solution)
polyatomic ions behave as a ... on both sides of the reaction, and are balanced as a ...
single unit; single unit
three types of reactions:
neutralization, combustion of organic compounds, oxidation-reduction
the fourth common type of reaction is
(acids and bases) simplest definition of an acid: any substance that dissolves in water and
yields the hydrogen cation
(acids and bases) acids are generally ...., but when they dissolve in water they ...
molecular compounds; ionize
(acids and bases) ionization: when molecular compounds
separate into ions in solution
(acids and bases) the hydrogen cation can also be written as
H3O+ (hydronium ion)
(acids and bases) writing the hydronium ion indicates that the hydrogen cation is associted with a ..., and that bare H+ ions are not ....
water molecule; present in solution
(acids and bases) in reaction stoichiometry, the ... representation is preferred becaue it ...
H+; simplifies equations
(acids and bases) the simplest definition of a base: any substance that produces
hydroxide anion in water
(acids and bases) the most common bases are the hydroxides of elements in groups
1 and 2
(acids and bases) the eequtions for acids and bases dissolving in water show
(acids and bases) when you write an equation that contains charged species, the sume of the charges on each side of the equation
must be the same, along with the number of atoms
(acid-base reactions: neutralization) neutralization: the reaction of an acid with a base yields
water and the respective salt
(acid-base reactions: neutralization) a salt is an ionic compound composed of a
cation from a base and an anion from an acid
(acid-base reactions: neutralization) the number of hydrogen ions contributed by the acid and the number of hydroxide ions contributed by the base are equal to ... and to the ...
each other; number of water molecules formed
(combustion reactions) combustion reaction is the process of ..., typically involves reaction with ...
(combustion reactions) assume that the products of the combustion of organic compounds that contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are always
CO2 and H2O
(combustion reactions) depending on how the reaction is carried ou, the water molecules could be in either the
gas of the liquid state
(oxidation-reduction reactions) combustion reactions are a special class of chemical reactions known as
(oxidation-reduction reactions) oxidation refers to the ... of electrons by a substance
(oxidation-reduction reactions) reduction refers to the ... of electrons by a substance
(oxidation-reduction reactions) oxidation-reduction reaction is one in which electrons are
transferred from one species to another
(oxidation-reduction reactions) in all oxidation-reduction reations, some atoms are .. and some are ..
(oxidation-reduction reactions) we often need to identify which compounds are oxidized and which are reduced to understand the ... of the reaction, and to help ... complicated reactions
(oxidation-reduction reactions) oxidation numbers are a bookkeeping method. They are ... numbers assigned to ... based on a set of rules
integer; atoms in molecules or ions
(oxidation-reduction reactions) an atom in its elemental state has an oxidation number of
(oxidation-reduction reactions) monatomic ionis in ionic compounds have an oxidation number equal to the
charge of the ion
(oxidation-reduction reactions) fluorine always has the ox number
(oxidation-reduction reactions) oxygen is generally
(oxidation-reduction reactions) hydrogen combined with a nonmetal is generally... and ... when combined with metals
(oxidation-reduction reactions) halogens are generally
(oxidation-reduction reactions) all other atoms are assigned oxidation numbers so that the sum of the oxidation numbers for all of the atoms in a species is equal to the
charge of the species
(oxidation-reduction reactions) to determine which species are oxidized/reduced, wee always start with
assigning oxidation numbers
one mole is equal to the number of atoms in exactly
12 grams of the carbon-12
the mole is the ... of the quantity "amount of a substance"
the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12 was experimentally measured and found to be
6.022 x 10^23 atoms
6.022 x 10^23 is known as
thus, 1 mol of anything has ... of those things
6.022 x 10^23
balanced chemical euations are balanced in terms of ..., as well as molecules
the molar mass (M) of any atom, molecule, or compound is the mass in grams of
one mole of that substance
thr molar mass of an element is numerically equal to the
atoic mass and molecular mass and formula mass
the molar mass of a substance is used to convert between ...
mass (in grams) and amount (in moles)
when a new compound is discovered, one of the first tests done may be to determine its
the mass percentage of each element ina compound is calculated from the
chemical formula and the atomic masses of each eelemtn
the percentage composition of a compound can be based on its .... as well as on its ...
empiricial formula; molecular formula
by reversing the mass percentage calculation, chemists can calculate the ... of a newly prepared compound
combustion analysis: determines the quantity of ... and ... in a sample of an
carbon; hydrogen; organic compound
This process involves burning a sample in excess ...oxygen and determining the amount of ...and ...generated
oxygen; CO2; H2O
The percentage of carbon and hydrogen in the sample can be calculated from the
measured masses of CO2 and H2O
in combustioin nalysis, the msses of each of the elements present, is not determined
the first step in determining a molecular formula is to experimentally determine the
the empirical formula can be determined from either the ... or ... of the elements in a sample
masses; mass percentages
this calculation yields only the empirical formula, because the composition by mass is based only on the relative number of ... of each element in the compound
the empirical formula is usually al you need to describe the composition of a
dditional experimental information is needed tod etermine the correct formula of a
to calculate the relative number of moles, we need to convr tthe mass of each element into the
moles of atoms of that eleemnt
procss for determining the empirical formula: composition to moles of each element by using .... to the empricial formula by ...
the moar mass of elements; dividng by the smallest number
empirical formulas are often determined from the results of experiments that provid
mass percentage composition
if the composition is given as percentages, assum ethat a ... sample has been analyzed
to calculate the molecular formula from the empirical formula, we must know the ... of the compound from experiment
the molecular formula must be a whole-number multiple of the ..., where n is the number of times the empirical formula occurs in the ..
empirical formula; molecular formula
n is calculated as follows: n =
molar mass of compound/ molar mass of empirical formula
chemical equations express ...
the coefficients of the balanced chemical equation relate amounts of each substance in the equation to any
other substance in the equation
chemical equations quantitaively expres stochiometric relationships in both numbers of ... and in ...
(proedure for using an equation to calculate mass of product/reactnt in chemical reaction) write the balanced
(proedure for using an equation to calculate mass of product/reactnt in chemical reaction) start with the given mass of one substance annd calculate ... of this substanc
the number of moles
(proedure for using an equation to calculate mass of product/reactnt in chemical reaction) use the coefficients of the balaned equation to calculate the moles of the ... from the moles of the ...
desired substance; given substance
(proedure for using an equation to calculate mass of product/reactnt in chemical reaction)calculate the mass of the ...
theoretical yield is the maximum quantity of product that can be obtained from a ..., based on the amounts of ...
chemical reaction; starting materials
limiting reactant: the reactant that is completely ... when the chemical reaction occurs
when we calculate the amount of product formed, the calculation must be based on the ..., not the reactants that are present in excess
the limiting reactant is the one that yields the .. of any one product
sometimes ... occur and consume some starting material without forming the expeced product
actual yield: mass of product ... from a reaction, always .. than the theoretical yield
percent yield =
actual yield/ theoretical yield x 100%
laboratory workers occasionally observe an actual yield that is greater than the theoretical yeield because the desired substance may be ... by other products or by ..
contaminated; excess reactants
any time the actual yield exceeds the theoretical yield, further investigation must be done to
determine the source of error
sometimes the result of a chemical reactiondepends on an
excess of one or more reactants
an excess of one or more reactants can usually aoid
undesirable side products