Chapter 3: Evolution, Biodiversity, and Population Ecology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Evolution, Biodiversity, and Population Ecology Deck (22):
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Species

Population or group of populations whose members share characteristics and can freely breed with one another and produce fertile offspring

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Population

Group of individuals of a particular species that live in a particular area

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Evolution

Changes in populations of organisms across generations

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Natural Selection

The process by which inherited characteristics that enhance survival and reproduction are passed on more frequently to future generations than those that do not

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Adaptation

Process of the better genes becoming more apparent in newly born individuals; Also a trait that promotes survival

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Mutation

Accidental change in DNA

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Recombination

Mixing genetic material through sexual reproduction, whole new set of genes

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Convergent Evolution

Unrelated species have same traits bc same habitat

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Artifical Selection

Selective breeding conducted by humors

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Speciation

Process that generates new species

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Fossil

Imprint in stone of dead organism

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What Does Fossil record show?

Life 3.5 billion years; earlier organisms evolved into later ones; number of species increases over time; species living today fraction of all that ever lived; mass extinction episodes

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Endemic

Occuring only at one place of planet

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Ecology

Scientific study of the distribution and abundance of organisms

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Ecosystems

Commmunities and the abiotic material and forces with which community members interact

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Community

Assemlage of populations of interacting species that live in the same area

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Main Factors of Population Ecology

Size, Density, Distribution, Sex Ratio, Age Structure, Birth and Death Rates

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Density Dependent

Predeation, disease

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Density Independent

Temperature extremes, storms

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Biotic Potential

Capacity to produce offspring

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K selected

Lot of investment in offspring

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R selected

No investment, birth as many as you can