Chapter 3 Feeds and Non-ruminant Nutrition in Thailand Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Feeds and Non-ruminant Nutrition in Thailand Deck (42)
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1

Livestock

Domesticated animals, for profit, for foods.

2

Oral Cavity

First step of digestive process.

*cows don't cut grass, due to.the lack of front upper teeth.

3

Esophagus

Fungsi melumat makanan

4

Stomach

Enzymes: pepsin, HCl,
Function: breaking down protein
Specific Condition: pH

5

Small Intestine

For digestion and food absorbing process

6

Large intestine

Fermentation and reabsorb

7

Non-Ruminant Animals

- One Stomach
- Poultry and Swine

8

Ruminant Animals

Many Stomach
Cattle, Sheep, Buffalo, Goat

9

Feeds

-Organic
-Inorganic
-Moisture

10

Organic Feeds

Protein
Fat
Lipid
Carbo

11

Inorganic Feeds

Minerals

12

Essential Protein

Protein that comes from our foods, can't​ be produced by our body e.g. Lysine, Methionine, Threonine

13

Non Essential Proteins

Protein that only can be produced by our body

14

Fat

Made up of vegetables oil and animal fats

15

Carbohydrates

consist of many types:
- sugar
- fiber
- starch

16

Starch

Amylose to Amylopectin (produced in animal )

17

Fiber

Cellulose to Hemicellulose (produced in plant)

18

Main Source of Energy

Protein and amino
Carbohydrates Fat

19

Gross Energy

total energy intakes

20

Digestible Energy (DE)

energy processed (digested)

21

Metabolizable Energy (ME)

running metabolism

22

Minerals

C H N O structure

e.g. calcium, magnesium, zinc, iodine
phosphorus, sodium chlorine

23

Phytate Phosphorus

no idea

24

Vitamins

Fat soluble: ADEK
Water Soluble: BC

25

Water

55-75% of body

26

Protein percentage in melamine issue

To calculate by ( Nitrogen contain x 6.25)

27

Feedstuffs

anything eaten or drunk for nutrition and pleasure

can be made from animals and plants

28

Roughage

Feed containing much indigestible materials acting as fiber (>18%)

29

Concentrate

Feed containing material in low fiber (<18%), can be used as source of:
1. energy feed
2. protein feed

30

Protein Feedstuffs

Produced from plant e.g soybean, leucena and from animals e.g fishmeal, fur

31

Soybean Dilemma

Processing soybean as feedstuffs are quite complicated due to its potential to generate anti-nutritional factors e.g trypsin inhibitor, urease, phytic acid when it's in raw state.

However, it turns to be less digestibility when it's overcooked.

The best soybean meal will appear in light brownish color and has a nut-like taste

32

Soybean Dilemma

Processing soybean as feedstuffs are quite complicated due to its potential to generate anti-nutritional factors e.g trypsin inhibitor, urease, phytic acid when it's in raw state.

However, it turns to be less digestibility when it's overcooked.

The best soybean meal will appear in light brownish color and has a nut-like taste

33

Protein-Fish Meal

CP 50%-60% (protein level)
Come from all parts of fish by product or whole fish

34

Protein-Dried Milk Products for Piglet

Skimmed Milk
Whey
Milk Replacer

35

Carbo Corn

CP 6-8% and low fiber
Yellow pigment​ is good for layer
Aflatoxin contamination!

36

Carbo Broken Rice

CP 8%
Easy to digest
Low fat and fiber
No pigment

37

Carbo Cassava

CP 2%
High starch
High fiber 4%
! Hydrocyanic Acid !
Dusty and bulky

38

Fat and Oil

Increase palatability
decrease heat increment
balancing dietary energy

e.g Palm oil, rice bran oil, soybean oil, poultry fat.

39

Nutritive food additives

Essential protein: Lysine, Methionine, Threonine


Macro minerals: Ca, Phosphorus, Sodium, Chlorine

Premix (from trace minerals & vitamins): Choline

40

Basic Feed Formulation

Protein: from plant (10-30%), animal (2-8%)

Energy: from grain (40-60%), oil (2-6%)

Nutritive Feed Additives: 10-15%

Non-nutritious Feed Additives: 1-2%

41

Wheat

Cereal grain
CP ~12%
High NSPs
High Fiber
Lack of pigment

42

Non Nutritive Feed Additives

Preservative, Feed Processing, Toxicology, Palatability, Improvement of digestion & absorption, bacteria control, product improvement, fertility.

! FOR ADDITIONAL PURPOSE ONLY!