Chapter 3 - Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

Human Sexuality > Chapter 3 - Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology Deck (101):
1

Pudenda

The external sexual structures of the female.

2

Vulva

Another term for the external sexual structures of the female.

3

Mons Veneris

A mound of fatty tissue that covers the joint of the pubic bones in front of the body, below the abdomen and above the clitoris.

4

Labia Majora

Large folds of skin that run downward from the mons along the sides of the vulva.

5

Labia Minora

Hairless, light-colored membranes, located between the labia majora.

6

Clitoris

A female sex organ consisting of a shard and glans located above the urethral opening. It is extremely sensitive to sexual sensations.

7

Corpora Cavernosa

Masses of spongy tissue in the clitoral shaft that become engorged with blood and stiffen in response to sexual stimulation.

8

Prepuce

The fold of skin covering the glans of the clitoris (or penis in men).

9

Homologous

Similar in structure; developing from the same embryonic tissue.

10

Analogous

Similar in function.

11

Clitoridectomy

Surgical removal of the clitoris.

12

Vestibule

The are in the labia minora that contains the openings to the vagina and the urethra.

13

Urethral Opening

The opening through which urine passes from the female's body.

14

Cystitis

An inflammation of the urinary bladder.

15

Introitus

The vaginal opening.

16

Hymen

A fold of tissue across the vaginal opening that is usually present at birth and remains at least partially intact until the woman engages in coitus.

17

Perinium

The skin and underlying tissue that lies between the vaginal opening and the anus.

18

Crura

Anatomical structures resembling legs that attach the clitoris and the pubic bone.

19

Vestibular Bulbs

Cavernous structures that extend downward along the sides of the introitus and swell during sexual arousal.

20

Bartholin's Glands

Glands that lie just inside the minor lips and secrete fluid just before orgasm.

21

Vagina

The tubular female sex organ that contains the penis during sexual intercourse and through which a baby is born.

22

Douche

Application of a jet of liquid to the vagina as a rinse.

23

Vaginitis

Vaginal inflammation.

24

Cervix

The lower end of the uterus.

25

Os

The opening in middle of the cervix.

26

Pap Test

A test of a sample of cervical cells that screens for cervical cancer and other abnormalities.

27

Radiotherapy

Treatment of a disease by X-rays or by emissions from a radioactive substance.

28

Uterus

The hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ in which a fertilized ovum implants and develops until birth.

29

Fundus

The uppermost later of the uterus.

30

Endometrium

The innermost layer of the uterus.

31

Endometriosis

A condition caused by the growth of endometrial tissue in the abdominal cavity or elsewhere outside the uterus and characterized by menstrual pain.

32

Myometrium

The middle, well muscled layer of the uterus.

33

Perimetrium

The outer later of the uterus.

34

Fallopian Tubes

Tubes that extend from the upper uterus toward the ovaries and that conduct ova to the uterus.

35

Ectopic Pregnancy

A pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube.

36

Ovaries

Almond-shaped organs that produce ova and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

37

Estrogen

A generic term for female sex hormones or synthetic compounds that promote the development of female sex characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle.

38

Progesterone

A steroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum or prepared synthetically that stimulates proliferation of the endometrium and is involved in regulation of the menstrual cycle.

39

Follicle

A capsule within an ovary that contains an ovum.

40

Hysterectomy

Surgical removal of the uterus.

41

Complete Hysterectomy

Surgical removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and uterus.

42

Partial Hysterectomy

Surgical removal of the uterus, but not the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

43

Secondary Sex Characteristics

Traits that distinguish the sexes from one another but are not directly involved in reproduction.

44

Mammary Glands

Milk-secreting glands.

45

Areola

The dark ring on the breast that encircles the nipple.

46

Mammography

A special type of X-ray test that detects cancerous lumps in the breast.

47

Mastectomy

Surgical removal of the entire breast.

48

Lumpectomy

Surgical removal of a lump from the breast.

49

Cysts

Sac-like structures filled with fluid or diseased material

50

Benign

Doing little or no harm.

51

Fibroadenoma

A benign fibrous tumor.

52

Malignant

Lethal; cause or likely to cause death.

53

Menstruation

The cyclical bleeding that stems from the shedding of the uterine lining.

54

Ovulation

The release of an ovum from the ovary.

55

Corpus Luteum

The follicle that has released an ovum and then produces copious amounts of progesterone and estrogen during the luteal phase of a woman's cycle.

56

Endocrine Gland

A ductless gland that releases its secretions directly into the bloodstream.

57

Menarche

The first menstrual period.

58

Hypothalamus

A structure near the center of the brain that is involved in regulating body temperature, motivation, and emotion.

59

Pituitary Gland

The gland that secretes growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, and others.

60

Hormone

A substance secreted by an endocrine gland that regulates various body functions.

61

Testes

The male gonads.

62

Testosterone

The male sex hormone that fosters the development of male sex characteristics and is connected with the sex drive.

63

Prolactin

A pituitary hormone that stimulates production of milk.

64

Oxytocin

A pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine contractions in labor and the ejection of milk during nursing.

65

Gonadotropins

Pituitary hormones that stimulate the gonads.

66

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

A gonadotropin that stimulates development of follicles in the ovaries.

67

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

A gonadotropin that helps regulate the menstrual cycle by triggering ovulation.

68

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (Gn-RH)

A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the pituitary to release gonadotropins.

69

Proliferative Phase

The first phase of the menstrual cycle, which begins with the end of menstruation and lasts about nine or ten days. During this phase, the endometrium proliferates.

70

Ovulatory Phase

The second stage of the menstrual cycle , during which a follicle ruptures and releases a mature ovum.

71

Zygote

A fertilized ovum (egg cell).

72

Mittelschmerz

Pain that occurs during ovulation, midway between menstrual periods.

73

Secretory Phase

The third phase of the menstrual cycle, which follows ovulation. Also referred to as the luteal phase, after the corpus luteum, which begins to secrete large amounts of progesterone and estrogen following ovulation.

74

Menstrual Phase

The fourth phase of the menstrual cycle, during which the endometrium is sloughed off in the menstrual flow.

75

Tampon

A plug made of cotton or a similar material that is inserted into the vagina to absorb the menstrual flow.

76

Estrus

The period of time, as controlled by hormone levels, during which females in many species are most receptive to sexual activity.

77

Menopause

The cessation of menstruation.

78

Perimenopause

The beginning of menopause, as characterized by 3 to 11 months of amenorrhea or irregular periods.

79

Climacteric

A long-term process, including menopause, that involves the gradual decline in the reproductive capacity of the ovaries.

80

Osteoporosis

A condition cause by estrogen deficiency that is characterized by a decline in bone density, such as bones that become porous and brittle.

81

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

The administration of hormones such as estrogen and progestin to alleviate health problems associated with the loss of natural hormones.

82

Dysmenorrhea

Pain or discomfort that occurs in the absence of known organic problems.

83

Secondary Dysmenorrhea

Menstrual pain or discomfort that is cause by identified organic problems.

84

Prostaglandins

Hormones that cause muscle fibers in the uterine wall to contract, as during labor.

85

Mastalgia

A swelling in the breasts that sometimes causes premenstrual discomfort.

86

Amenorrhea

The absence of menstruation.

87

Primary Amenorrhea

Lack of menstruation in a woman who has never menstruated.

88

Secondary Amenorrhea

Lack of menstruation in a woman who has previously menstruated.

89

Anorexia Nervousa

A psychological disorder of eating characterized by intense fear of pitting on weight and refusal to eat enough to maintain normal body weight.

90

Premestrual Syndrome (PMS)

A combination of physical and psychological symptoms that regularly afflict many women during the four-to-six day interval that precedes their menses each month.

91

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

A diagnosis used by the American Psychiatric Association to describe cases of PMS that are characterized by severe changes in mood and impairment of functioning at work, at school or in social relationships.

92

HPV is connected with ____.

Cervical cancer

93

Urine passes through the _____.

Urethra

94

Menstrual cramps are thought to be cause by ____.

Prostaglandins

95

Hot flashes and flushes stem largely from wave of dilation of ______.

Blood vessels

96

The endometrium develops during the ________ phase of the menstrual cycle.

Proliferative

97

A surge of _____ triggers ovulation.

Luteinizing Hormone

98

The ______ is the only organ whose only known purpose is the experiencing of sexual pleasure.

Clitoris

99

For women who obtain HRT, combining estrogen with ____ lessens the risk of endometrial cancer.

Progestin

100

Skeptics concerning the G spot are most likely to argue that _____.

The G spot is not a discrete sex organ

101

When the hypothalamus senses a low level of estrogen in the blood, it increases secretion of Gn-RH which in turn triggers the pituitary gland to release ______.

FSH