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Flashcards in chapter 3 info neuropsych Deck (42):
1

ipsilateral

structures on the same side

2

contralateral

structures on the opposite side

3

bilateral

structures in both hemispheres

4

proximal

structures close together

5

distal

structures far apart

6

efferent*****

movement away from the brain

7

afferent******

movement toward the brain

8

CNS

brain and spinal cord

9

PNS

somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

10

somatic nervous system (SNS)

spinal and cranial nerves

11

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

balances internal organ through parasympathetic (regulating bodys unconscious actions-feed and breed), and sympathetic (homeostasis-fight or flight) nerves

12

protection of CNS

brain enclosed in skull, spinal cord in bony vertebrae, 3 layers of membrane (dura mater, arachnoid membrane, pia mater), cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid that continuously circulates

13

PNS protection

outside bony encasements and meninges protection, more vulnerable to injury

14

2 carotid arteries and 2 vertebral arteries supply blood to the brain that connect to the base of brain and branch into

anterior cerebral artery
middle cerebral artery
posterior cerebral artery

15

gray matter

color from capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell bodies

16

white matter

color form axons covered in an insulating layer of glial cells

17

reticular matter

color and appearance from cell bodies and axons

18

layers or nuclei

well defined group of cell bodies

19

tract

large collection of axons projecting to or away from layer/nucleus within CNS

20

nerves

fibers and fiber pathways that enter CNS

21

ventricles

hollow pockets within brain filled with CSF, lateral ventricals (1, 2)

22

spinal cord

afferent sensory receptors, sends efferent fibers to control muscles

23

30 segments in 5 regions

cervical 8
thoracic 12
lumbar 5
sacral 5
coccygeal segment

24

dorsal root (sensory)

strand of afferent fibers entering the spinal cord, carries sensory info to the brain

25

ventral root (motor)

strand of efferent fibers leaving the spinal cord, carries motor info to the body

26

bell-magendie law

principle that dorsal part of SC in sensory and ventral part is motor

27

flexion
extension

flex-stimulation of pain receptors, bring in
extension-stimulation of fine touch, bring out

28

sympathetic nervous system

arouses body for fight or flight, thoracic and lumbar regions

29

parasympathetic nervous system

calms body, rest and digest, connects with parasympathetic ganglia near large organs

30

3 regions of brainstem

hindbrain, midbrain, diencephalon

31

hindbrain

cerebellum (coordinates and helps learn skilled movements), reticular formation (maintains general arousal, responsiveness), pons and medulla (serve many functions-waking, sleeping, locomotion)

32

midbrain

tectum (dorsal location, roof, sensory input from eyes and ears), tegmentum (ventral location, floor, superior colliculi (eyes) inferior colliculi (ears), orientation of movement to sensory input), red nucleus (limb movement), substantia nigra (reward), periacqueductal grey (species typical behaviors, pain response)

33

diencephalon

hypothalamus (motivated behavior), epithalamus (biorhythms), thalamus (relay station)

34

forebrain

basal ganglia
limbic system
cerebral cortex

35

basal ganglia

collection of nuclei that includes putamen, globus pallidus(parkinsons) and caudate nucleus (huntingtons), supports stimulus response learning, sequencing movements

36

basal ganglia disease

huntingons chorea-genetic disorder, cell death in BG, dance like movements
parkinsons disease-substantia nigra to basal ganglia projection dies, tremors in hands and legs, rigid movement and difficulty maintaining balance
tourettes syndrome-involuntary motor tics, complex movements

37

limbic system

amygdala (emotion and species typical behavior), hippocampus (memory and spatial navigation), septum (emotion and species typical behavior), cingulate cortex

38

neocortex

expanded most during evolution, 80% of brain, 6 layers

39

fissure

cleft in cortex deep enough to indent ventricles

40

sulci

shallow cleft in cortex

41

gyri

ridge

42

projection map

inputs and outputs in cortex, primary areas (lobes), secondary areas, tertiary areas, Brodmann's Map organized based on distribution of cells