Chapter 3: Language- Key Points and Terms to Remember Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Language- Key Points and Terms to Remember Deck (47):
1

Where does a great deal of our knowledge come from and what does this make possible?

A great deal of our knowledge comes through language and this makes possible an intellectual division on labor.

2

What is language?

Language is a subset of communication and is rule-governed, intended, and creative.

3

Before we decide whether a sentence is true or false what do we need to do first?

We need to understand what a sentence means before we can decide whether it is true or false.

4

What types of meanings have shortcomings and what should we say instead?

Since the definition, denotation, and image theories of meaning all have shortcomings, perhaps we should say that meaning is a matter of know-how.

5

What is a great deal of language and what element is present?

A great deal of language is ambiguous and there is an element of interpretation built into all communication.

6

What do different languages do and what is translation?

Since different languages divide the world up in different ways translation is more of an art than a science.

7

What do we use language for and what danger comes with this?

We use language to label and classify and this brings with it the danger that we misclassify or stereotype things.

8

What does language not do as claimed by what hypothesis? What might it do instead?

Although language may not determine our experience of reality, as claimed by the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, it seems likely that it influences it.

9

What else do we use language for in addition to describing?

We use language not only to describe, but also to influence and persuade and sometimes manipulate the way we see things.

10

What is a matter of continuing debate in language?

Whether or not there are some truths that lie beyond language is a matter of continuing debate?

11

What is ambiguity?

having more than one meaning; one part of problematic meaning

12

What is back translation?

when we retranslate a translation back into its original language, it should approximate to the original

13

What is body language?

intended language in which the body projects actions or signals outwards to communicate messages

14

What is classification?

a way to label things and put in groups by common characteristics

15

What is communication?

relaying feelings or information either through intentional or non-intentional means

16

What is connotation?

secondary meaning; emotional meaning behind a word

17

What is denotation?

primary meaning; dictionary definition of word

18

What is emotive meaning?

the aura of favorable or unfavorable feeling that hovers about a word

19

What is euphemism?

mild or neutral sounding words substituted in for a negative sounding one

20

What is grammar?

gives the rules for how to combine words in the correct order, and it helps to determine the meaning of a sentence

21

What is idiom?

a colloquial expression whose meaning cannot be worked out from the meanings of the words it contains

22

What is irony?

the saying of one things in order to mean the opposite

23

What is linguistic determinism?

the idea that language and its structures limit and determine human knowledge or though as well as though processes such as categorization, memory, and perception

24

What is metaphor?

a figure of speech that identifies one thing as being the same as some unrelated other thing , for rhetorical effect, thus highlighting the similarities between the two

25

What is Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?

language determines our experience of reality and we can see and think only what our language allows us to see

26

What is stereotype?

assumptions about a group of people purely on the basis of their membership of that group

27

What are weasel words?

words such as "many", "should", and "probably" which people slip into sentences to give themselves and escape route

28

What is having more than one meaning; one part of problematic meaning?

Ambiguity

29

What is when we retranslate a translation back into its original language, it should approximate to the original?

Back Translation

30

What is intended language in which the body projects actions or signals outwards to communicate messages?

Body Language

31

What is a way to label things and put in groups by common characteristics?

Classification

32

What is relaying feelings or information either through intentional or non-intentional means?

Communication

33

What is secondary meaning; emotional meaning behind a word?

Connotation

34

What is primary meaning; dictionary definition of word?

Denotation

35

What is the aura of favorable or unfavorable feeling that hovers about a word?

Emotive Meaning

36

What is mild or neutral sounding words substituted in for a negative sounding one?

Euphemism

37

What is gives the rules for how to combine words in the correct order, and it helps to determine the meaning of a sentence?

Grammar

38

What is a colloquial expression whose meaning cannot be worked out from the meanings of the words it contains?

Idiom

39

What is the saying of one things in order to mean the opposite?

Irony

40

What is the idea that language and its structures limit and determine human knowledge or though as well as though processes such as categorization, memory, and perception?

Linguistic Determinism

41

What is a figure of speech that identifies one thing as being the same as some unrelated other thing , for rhetorical effect, thus highlighting the similarities between the two?

Metaphor

42

What is language determines our experience of reality and we can see and think only what our language allows us to see?

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

43

What is assumptions about a group of people purely on the basis of their membership of that group?

Stereotype

44

What is words such as "many", "should", and "probably" which people slip into sentences to give themselves and escape route?

Weasel Words

45

What are the 3 problems of meaning?

Definition Theory; Denotation Theory; Image Theory

46

What are the 5 parts of problematic meaning?

Vagueness; Ambiguity; Secondary Meaning; Metaphor; Irony

47

What are the 3 problems of translation?

Context; Untranslatable Words; Idioms