Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Learning and Memory Deck (61):
Learning is a permanent change in behaviour brought on by an experience
What type of learning is by watching someone? What type is from casual unintentional acquisition such as a tv jingle?
Learning by watching is Vicariously, and unintentional acquisition is incidental learning
What are behavioural learning theories?
Simple stimulus-response theories
What are cognitive theories?
Complex problem solving by learning abstract rules and concepts by observing others
What do Behavioural Learning theories assume about consumers?
That their brains are black boxes, where learning takes place as the result of responses to external events, not internal thought processes. Such as salivating to a Big Mac
Give a brief rundown on how classical conditioning works
So a UCS (unconditioned stimulus such as dog food) makes a dog salivate, when a CS (conditioned stimulus such as bell) is rung at the same time, and then the bell alone makes the saliva, then the saliva-by-bell is now a CR (conditioned response)
Classical conditioning is a form of what type of learning?
What is associative learning?
When consumers learn associations between stimuli in a simply fashion rather than complex processes such as memory or cognition taking place
What is stimulus generalization?
This is when stimulus similar to CS evoke the conditioned response. So maybe a random metal sound would sound like a bell and trigger dogs to salivate
What can stimulus generalization mean for big brands with many different products under it's umbrella?
Consumers may lump them together as one. So if I'm unimpressed by Microsoft laptop, ill probably carry that over to other products using their software
How does stimulus discrimination impact brand competition?
If a CS is not followed by a UCS, it weakens and dies. So some brands try to establish stimulus discrimination, such s ShamWow saying to not buy cheap imitations
Whats a twist on stimulus discrimination that let brands try and hide products true origin?
MASKED BRANDING, so RIckards Red beer positioning as craft beer when really is made by Coors light
The conditioned associations are crucial to marketing strategies that rely on the creation and perpetuation of what?
What is ADVERTISING WEAROUT?
This is when consumers are so used to absorbing stimulus that they no longer pay attention to it
How can advertising wearout be alleviated?
varying the way in with the basic message is delivered. Such as having multiple celebrities in your campaign such as the Got Milk Campaign
What are 4 strategies based on stimulus generalization?
1. Family Branding (Rely on company name such as Google)
2. Product-Line Extensions (Like Dole moving to snack cups etc)
3. Licensing (Such as some companies wanting to use the Bradley brand name)
4. Look-Alike Packaging (So kirkland trying to recreate Gillette or something)
What is instrumental conditioning?
Also known as operant conditioning. It is when people learn positive behaviours, and avoid negative behaviours
What is the process of conditioning called?
Shaping, which is when consumers are rewarded for successive steps. Such as rollup the rim to win at Timmies
What are the two most common learning schedules?
Ratio schedules and interval schedules
What are the 4 types of learning schedules?
1. Fixed-Ratio reinforcement (Pete's everything 10th checkout is 10% off)
2. Variable-Ratio reinforcement (Roll-up-the-rim to win campaign)
3. Fixed-Interval Reinforcement (Fixed sales, such as annual boxing day sale)
4. Variable-Interval Reinforcement (Riverrock mailing little slot vouchers every now and then)
What is frequency marketing?
Giving prices with value that increase along with the amount purchased. Such as frequent flyer programs
For obersvational learning in the form of modelling to occur, what four conditions must be met?
1. Consumer attention must be toward a model that is desirable to emulate
2. Consumer must remember what model says
3. Consumer must convert this info into actions
4. Consumer must be motivated to perform these actions
What are the three stages of the memory process?
1. Encoding (info placed in memory)
2. Storage (info retained in memory)
3. Retrieval (info stored is found as needed)
What are the 4 stages of observational learning?
3. Production processes
How can marketers distort a consumers recall of product experience?
By advertising messages which we are exposed to after using them. Called POSTEXPERIENCE ADVERTISING
What is the process of memory between the memory systems (3 systems, two processes in-between)
1. Sensory Memory
3. Short-term memory
4. Elaborative Rehearsal
5. Long-term memory
Descibe the sensory memory system
It is the temporary storage of sensory info, with high capacity but low (less than second) duration
Descibe the Attention process
Info must pass through this attentional gate to go to short-term memory
Describe the short-term memory system
It is brief storage, with limited capacity and less than 20s duration
Describe the Elaborative Rehearsal process
Info is subjected to elaborative rehearsal or deep processing, and this transfers stuff to long-term memory
Descibe the Long-term memory system
Relatively permanent storage with unlimited capacity, and long or permanent duration
What are the approaches to relationshipizing memory such as multiple-store theory assuming LTM and STM are sperate?
ACTIVATION MODELS OF MEMORY
In the associative network models, what are knowledge structures?
These are complex spiderwebs filled with pieces of data in NODES
In hierarchical processing model, an ad is processed how?
In a bottom-up fashion, so at a basic level to complex. If processing fails at a low level, it fails to evoke next level
What is a persons EVOKED SET?
This is a big associated network, and consumers places brands in the appropriate category within this
What is spreading activation?
As one node is activated, others closeby are triggered, and it allows consumer sot shift back and forth between levels of meaning
What is a schema?
A cognitive framework that is developed through experience
What is a script, in reference to schemas?
It is a type of schema, where people tie it to expect ions for brand. Such as dentist script is driving there, checking in, cleaning, inspection, toy, then leave
What is analogical learning?
This is drawing an analogy between new product and existing product
In analogical learning, what is the new and existing product called?
What are the two forms analogical learning can take?
1. Attributes (listerine breath strips same colour as wash)
2. Relations (listerine breath strips does similar thing as mouth wash)
What are 3 factors influencing recall?
1. Familiarity and recall (greater familiarity=greater recall)(
2. Salience and recall (Greater salience is greater prominence in memory, and greater recall)
3. Pictorial Versus verbal cues (unclear if visual is greater than verbal)
What is a retro brand?
Updated version of a brand from a prior historical period. Which triggers nostaliga
What are 3 reasons the ability of existing measures to accretesly assess dimensions of memory measures has been criticized?
1. Response biases (People tend to say yes regardless of what is being asked)
2. Memory Lapses (well, people forget shit)
3. Memory for facts versus feelings (Tim Hortons vs yogurt health, one is rational one is emotional)
The bottom line with recall is what?
It is important for creating brand awareness, but is not necessarily sufficient to alter consumer preferences. For this marketers need sophisticated attitude-changing strategies
What are the characteristics of effective tag lines?
Consistency - Compare BMWs ultimate driving machine since 75' to Pepsi 14 different tag lines
Congruent with who you are -
Must be Clear - not necessarily clever
Modifying an idiom - straighten up (hair straightener)
Proper story and techniques such as alliteration, coined words etc
Theres a couple middle points I missed
Products + Memory =
Products + memory = Brand equity/loyalty
What are two things to beware of with classical conditioning advertising?
Frequent Product Encounters
What is the halo effect?
So this is to do with Classical conditioning, and is the piggybacking strategy by masked branding. Scope being copied by "Life"
What is the difference between sensory and semantic meanings?
Sensory meanings are things like colours and shapes, and semantic meaning are things like symbolic associations
What is chunking?
This is putting informational units into short-term memory. BRAND NAMES are a good example, so are xxx-xxx-xxxx for phones
Individual nodes =
Two or more connected nodes =
Two or more propositions =
Individual nodes =
Two or more connected nodes =
Two or more propositions =
An ad from BC hydro of a guy pumping a ton of ketchup on the ground with copy "why doesn't wasting power seem as ridiculous?"
What type of learning is this?
It is analogical learning, to make a cognitive jump from wasting product in a restaurant to wasting electricity
Explain mood congruence when encoding an experience
So if I encode an experience (such as dining at BP) in a bad mood, I'll remember it more when Im in a bad mood again
Behavioural learning theorists emphasize the routine, automatic nature of conditioning, which occurs because individuals develop conscious hypotheses and then act on them. On the other hand, there is some evidence that people do process at least some information in an automatic, passive way, which is a condition that has been termed ___________.
The process of "shaping" is associated with ________________________
Instrumental Conditioning (operant conditioning)
Every year, one month prior to her birthday, Wendy gives her parents a list of books and DVDs for which she has read reviews and/or heard about from trusted friends as being "must haves." This way her parents have a better idea about what to give Wendy as a gift that she would really enjoy. This constitutes Wendy's ________ for books and DVDs.
"Instrumental conditioning" is also known as what?
Is imitating the behaviour of others masking?
Pioneering brands are easy to recall yes?