Chapter 3 - Learning and Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Learning and Memory Deck (61):

Define Learning

Learning is a permanent change in behaviour brought on by an experience


What type of learning is by watching someone? What type is from casual unintentional acquisition such as a tv jingle?

Learning by watching is Vicariously, and unintentional acquisition is incidental learning


What are behavioural learning theories?

Simple stimulus-response theories


What are cognitive theories?

Complex problem solving by learning abstract rules and concepts by observing others


What do Behavioural Learning theories assume about consumers?

That their brains are black boxes, where learning takes place as the result of responses to external events, not internal thought processes. Such as salivating to a Big Mac


Give a brief rundown on how classical conditioning works

So a UCS (unconditioned stimulus such as dog food) makes a dog salivate, when a CS (conditioned stimulus such as bell) is rung at the same time, and then the bell alone makes the saliva, then the saliva-by-bell is now a CR (conditioned response)


Classical conditioning is a form of what type of learning?

Associative learning


What is associative learning?

When consumers learn associations between stimuli in a simply fashion rather than complex processes such as memory or cognition taking place


What is stimulus generalization?

This is when stimulus similar to CS evoke the conditioned response. So maybe a random metal sound would sound like a bell and trigger dogs to salivate


What can stimulus generalization mean for big brands with many different products under it's umbrella?

Consumers may lump them together as one. So if I'm unimpressed by Microsoft laptop, ill probably carry that over to other products using their software


How does stimulus discrimination impact brand competition?

If a CS is not followed by a UCS, it weakens and dies. So some brands try to establish stimulus discrimination, such s ShamWow saying to not buy cheap imitations


Whats a twist on stimulus discrimination that let brands try and hide products true origin?

MASKED BRANDING, so RIckards Red beer positioning as craft beer when really is made by Coors light


The conditioned associations are crucial to marketing strategies that rely on the creation and perpetuation of what?




This is when consumers are so used to absorbing stimulus that they no longer pay attention to it


How can advertising wearout be alleviated?

varying the way in with the basic message is delivered. Such as having multiple celebrities in your campaign such as the Got Milk Campaign


What are 4 strategies based on stimulus generalization?

1. Family Branding (Rely on company name such as Google)

2. Product-Line Extensions (Like Dole moving to snack cups etc)

3. Licensing (Such as some companies wanting to use the Bradley brand name)

4. Look-Alike Packaging (So kirkland trying to recreate Gillette or something)


What is instrumental conditioning?

Also known as operant conditioning. It is when people learn positive behaviours, and avoid negative behaviours


What is the process of conditioning called?

Shaping, which is when consumers are rewarded for successive steps. Such as rollup the rim to win at Timmies


What are the two most common learning schedules?

Ratio schedules and interval schedules


What are the 4 types of learning schedules?

1. Fixed-Ratio reinforcement (Pete's everything 10th checkout is 10% off)
2. Variable-Ratio reinforcement (Roll-up-the-rim to win campaign)
3. Fixed-Interval Reinforcement (Fixed sales, such as annual boxing day sale)
4. Variable-Interval Reinforcement (Riverrock mailing little slot vouchers every now and then)


What is frequency marketing?

Giving prices with value that increase along with the amount purchased. Such as frequent flyer programs


For obersvational learning in the form of modelling to occur, what four conditions must be met?

1. Consumer attention must be toward a model that is desirable to emulate
2. Consumer must remember what model says
3. Consumer must convert this info into actions
4. Consumer must be motivated to perform these actions


What are the three stages of the memory process?

1. Encoding (info placed in memory)
2. Storage (info retained in memory)
3. Retrieval (info stored is found as needed)


What are the 4 stages of observational learning?

1. Attention
2. Retention
3. Production processes
4. Motivation


How can marketers distort a consumers recall of product experience?

By advertising messages which we are exposed to after using them. Called POSTEXPERIENCE ADVERTISING


What is the process of memory between the memory systems (3 systems, two processes in-between)

1. Sensory Memory
2. Attention
3. Short-term memory
4. Elaborative Rehearsal
5. Long-term memory


Descibe the sensory memory system

It is the temporary storage of sensory info, with high capacity but low (less than second) duration


Descibe the Attention process

Info must pass through this attentional gate to go to short-term memory


Describe the short-term memory system

It is brief storage, with limited capacity and less than 20s duration


Describe the Elaborative Rehearsal process

Info is subjected to elaborative rehearsal or deep processing, and this transfers stuff to long-term memory


Descibe the Long-term memory system

Relatively permanent storage with unlimited capacity, and long or permanent duration


What are the approaches to relationshipizing memory such as multiple-store theory assuming LTM and STM are sperate?



In the associative network models, what are knowledge structures?

These are complex spiderwebs filled with pieces of data in NODES


In hierarchical processing model, an ad is processed how?

In a bottom-up fashion, so at a basic level to complex. If processing fails at a low level, it fails to evoke next level


What is a persons EVOKED SET?

This is a big associated network, and consumers places brands in the appropriate category within this


What is spreading activation?

As one node is activated, others closeby are triggered, and it allows consumer sot shift back and forth between levels of meaning


What is a schema?

A cognitive framework that is developed through experience


What is a script, in reference to schemas?

It is a type of schema, where people tie it to expect ions for brand. Such as dentist script is driving there, checking in, cleaning, inspection, toy, then leave


What is analogical learning?

This is drawing an analogy between new product and existing product


In analogical learning, what is the new and existing product called?

New: Target
Existing: Base


What are the two forms analogical learning can take?

1. Attributes (listerine breath strips same colour as wash)
2. Relations (listerine breath strips does similar thing as mouth wash)


What are 3 factors influencing recall?

1. Familiarity and recall (greater familiarity=greater recall)(
2. Salience and recall (Greater salience is greater prominence in memory, and greater recall)
3. Pictorial Versus verbal cues (unclear if visual is greater than verbal)


What is a retro brand?

Updated version of a brand from a prior historical period. Which triggers nostaliga


What are 3 reasons the ability of existing measures to accretesly assess dimensions of memory measures has been criticized?

1. Response biases (People tend to say yes regardless of what is being asked)
2. Memory Lapses (well, people forget shit)
3. Memory for facts versus feelings (Tim Hortons vs yogurt health, one is rational one is emotional)


The bottom line with recall is what?

It is important for creating brand awareness, but is not necessarily sufficient to alter consumer preferences. For this marketers need sophisticated attitude-changing strategies


What are the characteristics of effective tag lines?

Consistency - Compare BMWs ultimate driving machine since 75' to Pepsi 14 different tag lines

Congruent with who you are -

Must be Clear - not necessarily clever

Modifying an idiom - straighten up (hair straightener)

Proper story and techniques such as alliteration, coined words etc

Theres a couple middle points I missed


Products + Memory =

Products + memory = Brand equity/loyalty


What are two things to beware of with classical conditioning advertising?

Advertising Wearout

Frequent Product Encounters


What is the halo effect?

So this is to do with Classical conditioning, and is the piggybacking strategy by masked branding. Scope being copied by "Life"


What is the difference between sensory and semantic meanings?

Sensory meanings are things like colours and shapes, and semantic meaning are things like symbolic associations


What is chunking?

This is putting informational units into short-term memory. BRAND NAMES are a good example, so are xxx-xxx-xxxx for phones


Individual nodes =

Two or more connected nodes =

Two or more propositions =

Individual nodes =
meaning concepts

Two or more connected nodes =

Two or more propositions =


An ad from BC hydro of a guy pumping a ton of ketchup on the ground with copy "why doesn't wasting power seem as ridiculous?"

What type of learning is this?

It is analogical learning, to make a cognitive jump from wasting product in a restaurant to wasting electricity


Explain mood congruence when encoding an experience

So if I encode an experience (such as dining at BP) in a bad mood, I'll remember it more when Im in a bad mood again


Behavioural learning theorists emphasize the routine, automatic nature of conditioning, which occurs because individuals develop conscious hypotheses and then act on them. On the other hand, there is some evidence that people do process at least some information in an automatic, passive way, which is a condition that has been termed ___________.



The process of "shaping" is associated with ________________________

Instrumental Conditioning (operant conditioning)


Every year, one month prior to her birthday, Wendy gives her parents a list of books and DVDs for which she has read reviews and/or heard about from trusted friends as being "must haves." This way her parents have a better idea about what to give Wendy as a gift that she would really enjoy. This constitutes Wendy's ________ for books and DVDs.

Evoked set


"Instrumental conditioning" is also known as what?

Operant Conditioning


Is imitating the behaviour of others masking?



Pioneering brands are easy to recall yes?



Spontaneous recovery may explain what?

may explain consumers' powerful nostalgic reactions to songs, pictures, or brands they have not been exposed to in many years

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