Chapter 3: Membranes and the Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Membranes and the Integumentary System Deck (86):
1

Membrane

a body part that helps surround and protect body cavities

2

What are the two types of tissue membranes?

  • epithelial tissue membrans
    • mucous
    • serous
    • cuteanous
  • connective tissue membranes
    • synovial

3

What is an epithelial membrane and what are the types of epithelial membranes?

An epithelial membrane provides a lining, or covering, for the internal and external surfaces of the body. They types of epithelial membranes are the:

  • mucous
  • serous
  • cutaneous

4

Mucous Membrane

the mucous membrane lines the body cavities that are open to the outside world. This includes all the hollow organs of the respiratory, digestive urinary, and reproductive tract. Ex. the nose, mouth, lungs

5

Mucus

a slippery solution that protects the mucous membranes and aids in transporting substances

6

Serous Membranes

membranes that line body cavities that are closed to the outside world. It is structured simple squamous (flat). Examples of these membranes are: the pleura, the pericardium, and the peritoneum

7

Pleura

a serous membrane that encloses the lungs

8

Pericardium

a serous membrane that surrounds the heart

9

Peritoneum

a serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity

10

The serous membrane forms a double lining, an outer lining and an inner lining. What are these linings called?

The outerlining is called the parietal layer. The inner lining is called the visceral layer.

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Serous Fluid

the serous fluid is secreted from the serous membrane. It is clear and thin. It serves as a lubricant to minimize friction between the parietal and visceral linings in organs like the heart.

12

Cutaneous Membrane

the skin

13

What is a connective tissue membrane and what are the types of it?

Connective tissue membrane is a membrane composed of only connective tissue. There is only one types of connective tissue membrane: the synovial membrane

14

Synovial Membrane

lines the capsules that surround synovial joints like the knee or the shoulder. They also line the connective tissue that surrounds the tendons.

15

Synovial Fluid

Synovial fluid is secreted by the synovial membrane and provides cushoning and reduces friction. It keeps moving stuctures from wearing down.

16

The integumentary system

an system that includes the cutaneous membrane, the sweat and oil glands, and the hair and nails

*integumentary in Latin is integumentum, which means covering

17

What are the functions of the integumentary system?

The integumentary system protects, acts as a water barrier, regulates body temperature, produces vitamin D, eliminates waste (like urea and salts), and has sensory receptors (to sense touch, vibration, pain, pressure and temperature).

18

Keratin

a tough protein that adds stuctural strength. It is found is places like the outer layer of the skin, the hair, and nails

19

Melanocytes

cells in the skin that produce melanin

20

Melanin

a pigment that protects the body from the harmful effects of UV rays from the Sun. It is also primarily responsible for human skin color.

21

How does the sweat gland help protect against bacterial infections?

the fluid secreted by sweat glands is acidic

22

What are the two layers of the skin?

The epidermis and the dermis

23

What are the layers of the epidermis?

From outermost to innermost:

  • stratum corneum
  • stratum lucidum
  • stratum granulosum
  • stratum spinosum
  • stratum basale

24

What is the job of the stratum basale?

The stratum basale is constantly producing new skin cells.

25

What are most of the cells in the epidermis and what do they do?

Most of the cells are keratinocytes. They produce keratin.

26

New cells are constantly being made by the stratum basale. What happens as these new cells get pushed up the epidermis?

As these cells constantly move up through the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum, they become progressively flatter and more filled with keratin, which makes the cells tougher and more water resistant.

27

How often does the epidermis completely replace itself?

The epidermis replaces itself every 25 to 45 days.

28

Albanism

a condition that prevents the normal production of melanin

29

Epidermal Dentric Cells

The respond the presence of foreign bacteria and viruses by starting up the immune system to attack the invaders. There are about 800 dentric cells per square millimeter of the skin.

30

Merkel Cells

They are located in the stratum basale and function as touch receptors.

31

What two layers make up the dermis?

The outer layer of the dermis is called the papillary layer. The inner layer of the dermis is called the reticular layer.

32

Papillary Layer

the part of the dermis responsible for fingerprints

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Reticular Layer

The bottom part of the dermis and contains sweat and oil glands, hair follicles, and nerve endings.

34

The dermis is mainly composed of what two fibers?

The dermis is mainly composed of collagen and elastic fibers.

35

Collagen Fibers

provide toughness and bind with water molecules to keep the innerskin moist

36

Elastic Fibers

Elastic fibers keep the skin looking young.

37

As you get older, the number of collagen and elastic fibers decrease. What does this cause?

it causes wrinkles and sagging

38

What is another name for white blood cells and what do they do?

Another name for white blood cells is a phagocyte. They are responsible for ingesting foreign materials, like bacteria. 

39

hypodermis (subcutaneous fascia)

Lies under the dermis and is not considered part of the skin. It has fibrous connective tissues and adipose (fatty) tissues. This is where body fat is.

40

Body Fat

Serves an an insulator and a source of energy. Contains lipocytes (fat cells)

41

What are some of the appendages of the skin?

sudoriferous glands, sebaceous glands, hair, and nails

42

 What are sudoriferous glands and what are the two types?

Sweat glands. There are two types: eccrine and apocrine

43

On average, each person has approximetly how many sudoriferous glands?

2 million to 3 million

44

Eccrine

Covers most of the body and secretes a clear, acidic fluid that contains 99% water. The other 1% contains waste products like salts and urea.

45

Apocrine Glands

These glands begin to function during puberty and secrete a milky fluid that contains sweat, fatty acids, and proteins.

46

Sebaceous Glands

They are located everywhere except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. They produce an oily substance called sebum.

47

Sebum

Keeps the skin and hair soft and kills bacteria

48

Hair Follicles

bulb-shaped structures that prduce hair. These cells are pushed up and out of the scalp, become filled with keratin and die.

49

What makes a person's hair straight, curly, and wavy?

The shape of the hair follicle. Round follicles make straight hair. Ovals create wavy. Flat create curly.

50

Arrector Pilli

a muscle that connects to the side of a hair follicle and the epidermis. It is responsible for goosebumps.

51

Nails

Cells grow out, become keratinized and die. The thick proximal end of the nail is called nail matrix. The white crescent part of the nail is called a lunule. 

52

What are decubiutus ulcers caused by?

Also known as bedsores or pressure ulcers, they are caused by an area of localized pressure that restricts blood flow to one or more areas of the body.

53

How many stages of decubitus ulcers are there?

four

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Stage 1 of decubitis ulcers

There is red skin and small cracks on the epidermis.

55

Stage 2 of decubitus ulcers

a red area and when you press on it, in doesn't turn white

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Stage 3 of decubitus ulcers

a hole is forming through the dermis and starting to go through the hypodermis

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Stage 4 of decubitis ulcers

a hole has gone through the hypodermis and you can dee bones and tendons

58

What are some treatment options for decubitus ulcers?

  • removing pressure (relieves pressure)
  • antibiotics (kills bacteria)
  • debridement (removing dead tissue)
  • vacuum assisted closure (sponge the wound to help close it)
  • improved nutrition (creates protein to build cells) 

59

What are some ways to prevent decubitus ulcers?

proper nutrition and exercise

60

How many degrees of burns are there?

three

61

First Degree Burns

reddening of the skin with mild pain. Affects the epidermis

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Second Degree Burns

worse that first degree, contains blisters, and is painful. Affects the epidermis and the upperlayer of the dermis.

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Third Degree Burns

The most serious burn. Affects the same layers as second degree and deeper. Usually black and white. Initially not painful because the nerve endings have been burned off.

64

What is the rule of nines?

a rule that estimates the surface area of the body that can burned as a percent

65

What are the types of skin infections?

bacteria, virus, and fungus infections

66

What are the types of viral infections?

  • Herpes varicella (chicken pox)
  • Herps Zoster (shingles)
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (cold sores/fever blisters)
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (transmitted through mouth or geneital area)

67

HPV

Human Papillomavirus... which cause warts. All warts are caused by this virus.

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Common Warts

typically appear on the hands or fingers and usually disappear without treatment.

69

Plantar Warts

develop on the soles of the feet, grow inward, and can be very painful

70

Fungal Infections

also known as tinea, they tend to occur in the dark, moist areas of the body Some forms of fungal infections are: athlete's foot, jock itch, ring worm, and toenail fungus.

71

Athlete's foot (tinea pedis)

most common fungal infection and is characterized by cracked feet and flaky, red skin

72

Where does Jock Itch (tinea cruris) occur?

occurs in the groin and scrotum areas

73

Ringworm (tinia corporis)

usually caused by prolonged sweating and poor hygiene. it is usually a red, ring-shaped rash with a pale center

74

Toenail fungus (tinea unguium)

caused by a fungal infection under the nails

75

What are some bacterial infections?

  • impetigo
  • cellulitis

76

Impetigo

blister like bumps on the outside of the mouth and nose

77

Cellulitus

an imflammed area of the skin that is red, swollen, and painful

78

What is inflammation?

the general bodily response to any injury or disease that damages the cells

79

What are some of the inflammatory diseases?

  • pleurisy
  • peritonitis
  • psoriasis

80

Pleurisy

inflammation of the membranes that line the chest cavity

81

peritonitis

inflammation of membrane lining the abdominal cavity

82

psoriasis

skin cells are produced too quickly and the upper layer doesn't shed

83

Basal Cell Carcinoma

the least malignant and is caused by the overproduction of cells in the stratum basale

84

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

overproduction of cells in the stratum spinosum (grows very rapidly)

85

Malignant Melanoma

most dangerous form of skin cancer and is a cancer of the melanocytes

86

What does the ABCDE rule stand for?

To determine the presence of melanoma, look at:

  • Asymmetry (symetrical is good)
  • Border (even edges is good)
  • Color (only one shade is good)
  • Diameter (less than 1/4 inch is good)
  • Evolving (not changing is good)