a body part that helps surround and protect body cavities
What are the two types of tissue membranes?
- epithelial tissue membrans
- connective tissue membranes
What is an epithelial membrane and what are the types of epithelial membranes?
An epithelial membrane provides a lining, or covering, for the internal and external surfaces of the body. They types of epithelial membranes are the:
the mucous membrane lines the body cavities that are open to the outside world. This includes all the hollow organs of the respiratory, digestive urinary, and reproductive tract. Ex. the nose, mouth, lungs
a slippery solution that protects the mucous membranes and aids in transporting substances
membranes that line body cavities that are closed to the outside world. It is structured simple squamous (flat). Examples of these membranes are: the pleura, the pericardium, and the peritoneum
a serous membrane that encloses the lungs
a serous membrane that surrounds the heart
a serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
The serous membrane forms a double lining, an outer lining and an inner lining. What are these linings called?
The outerlining is called the parietal layer. The inner lining is called the visceral layer.
the serous fluid is secreted from the serous membrane. It is clear and thin. It serves as a lubricant to minimize friction between the parietal and visceral linings in organs like the heart.
What is a connective tissue membrane and what are the types of it?
Connective tissue membrane is a membrane composed of only connective tissue. There is only one types of connective tissue membrane: the synovial membrane
lines the capsules that surround synovial joints like the knee or the shoulder. They also line the connective tissue that surrounds the tendons.
Synovial fluid is secreted by the synovial membrane and provides cushoning and reduces friction. It keeps moving stuctures from wearing down.
The integumentary system
an system that includes the cutaneous membrane, the sweat and oil glands, and the hair and nails
*integumentary in Latin is integumentum, which means covering
What are the functions of the integumentary system?
The integumentary system protects, acts as a water barrier, regulates body temperature, produces vitamin D, eliminates waste (like urea and salts), and has sensory receptors (to sense touch, vibration, pain, pressure and temperature).
a tough protein that adds stuctural strength. It is found is places like the outer layer of the skin, the hair, and nails
cells in the skin that produce melanin
a pigment that protects the body from the harmful effects of UV rays from the Sun. It is also primarily responsible for human skin color.
How does the sweat gland help protect against bacterial infections?
the fluid secreted by sweat glands is acidic
What are the two layers of the skin?
The epidermis and the dermis
What are the layers of the epidermis?
From outermost to innermost:
- stratum corneum
- stratum lucidum
- stratum granulosum
- stratum spinosum
- stratum basale
What is the job of the stratum basale?
The stratum basale is constantly producing new skin cells.
What are most of the cells in the epidermis and what do they do?
Most of the cells are keratinocytes. They produce keratin.
New cells are constantly being made by the stratum basale. What happens as these new cells get pushed up the epidermis?
As these cells constantly move up through the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum, they become progressively flatter and more filled with keratin, which makes the cells tougher and more water resistant.
How often does the epidermis completely replace itself?
The epidermis replaces itself every 25 to 45 days.
a condition that prevents the normal production of melanin
Epidermal Dentric Cells
The respond the presence of foreign bacteria and viruses by starting up the immune system to attack the invaders. There are about 800 dentric cells per square millimeter of the skin.
They are located in the stratum basale and function as touch receptors.
What two layers make up the dermis?
The outer layer of the dermis is called the papillary layer. The inner layer of the dermis is called the reticular layer.
the part of the dermis responsible for fingerprints
The bottom part of the dermis and contains sweat and oil glands, hair follicles, and nerve endings.
The dermis is mainly composed of what two fibers?
The dermis is mainly composed of collagen and elastic fibers.
provide toughness and bind with water molecules to keep the innerskin moist
Elastic fibers keep the skin looking young.
As you get older, the number of collagen and elastic fibers decrease. What does this cause?
it causes wrinkles and sagging
What is another name for white blood cells and what do they do?
Another name for white blood cells is a phagocyte. They are responsible for ingesting foreign materials, like bacteria.
hypodermis (subcutaneous fascia)
Lies under the dermis and is not considered part of the skin. It has fibrous connective tissues and adipose (fatty) tissues. This is where body fat is.
Serves an an insulator and a source of energy. Contains lipocytes (fat cells)
What are some of the appendages of the skin?
sudoriferous glands, sebaceous glands, hair, and nails
What are sudoriferous glands and what are the two types?
Sweat glands. There are two types: eccrine and apocrine
On average, each person has approximetly how many sudoriferous glands?
2 million to 3 million
Covers most of the body and secretes a clear, acidic fluid that contains 99% water. The other 1% contains waste products like salts and urea.
These glands begin to function during puberty and secrete a milky fluid that contains sweat, fatty acids, and proteins.
They are located everywhere except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. They produce an oily substance called sebum.
Keeps the skin and hair soft and kills bacteria
bulb-shaped structures that prduce hair. These cells are pushed up and out of the scalp, become filled with keratin and die.
What makes a person's hair straight, curly, and wavy?
The shape of the hair follicle. Round follicles make straight hair. Ovals create wavy. Flat create curly.
a muscle that connects to the side of a hair follicle and the epidermis. It is responsible for goosebumps.
Cells grow out, become keratinized and die. The thick proximal end of the nail is called nail matrix. The white crescent part of the nail is called a lunule.
What are decubiutus ulcers caused by?
Also known as bedsores or pressure ulcers, they are caused by an area of localized pressure that restricts blood flow to one or more areas of the body.
How many stages of decubitus ulcers are there?
Stage 1 of decubitis ulcers
There is red skin and small cracks on the epidermis.
Stage 2 of decubitus ulcers
a red area and when you press on it, in doesn't turn white
Stage 3 of decubitus ulcers
a hole is forming through the dermis and starting to go through the hypodermis
Stage 4 of decubitis ulcers
a hole has gone through the hypodermis and you can dee bones and tendons
What are some treatment options for decubitus ulcers?
- removing pressure (relieves pressure)
- antibiotics (kills bacteria)
- debridement (removing dead tissue)
- vacuum assisted closure (sponge the wound to help close it)
- improved nutrition (creates protein to build cells)
What are some ways to prevent decubitus ulcers?
proper nutrition and exercise
How many degrees of burns are there?
First Degree Burns
reddening of the skin with mild pain. Affects the epidermis
Second Degree Burns
worse that first degree, contains blisters, and is painful. Affects the epidermis and the upperlayer of the dermis.
Third Degree Burns
The most serious burn. Affects the same layers as second degree and deeper. Usually black and white. Initially not painful because the nerve endings have been burned off.
What is the rule of nines?
a rule that estimates the surface area of the body that can burned as a percent
What are the types of skin infections?
bacteria, virus, and fungus infections
What are the types of viral infections?
- Herpes varicella (chicken pox)
- Herps Zoster (shingles)
- Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (cold sores/fever blisters)
- Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (transmitted through mouth or geneital area)
Human Papillomavirus... which cause warts. All warts are caused by this virus.
typically appear on the hands or fingers and usually disappear without treatment.
develop on the soles of the feet, grow inward, and can be very painful
also known as tinea, they tend to occur in the dark, moist areas of the body Some forms of fungal infections are: athlete's foot, jock itch, ring worm, and toenail fungus.
Athlete's foot (tinea pedis)
most common fungal infection and is characterized by cracked feet and flaky, red skin
Where does Jock Itch (tinea cruris) occur?
occurs in the groin and scrotum areas
Ringworm (tinia corporis)
usually caused by prolonged sweating and poor hygiene. it is usually a red, ring-shaped rash with a pale center
Toenail fungus (tinea unguium)
caused by a fungal infection under the nails
What are some bacterial infections?
blister like bumps on the outside of the mouth and nose
an imflammed area of the skin that is red, swollen, and painful
What is inflammation?
the general bodily response to any injury or disease that damages the cells
What are some of the inflammatory diseases?
inflammation of the membranes that line the chest cavity
inflammation of membrane lining the abdominal cavity
skin cells are produced too quickly and the upper layer doesn't shed
Basal Cell Carcinoma
the least malignant and is caused by the overproduction of cells in the stratum basale
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
overproduction of cells in the stratum spinosum (grows very rapidly)
most dangerous form of skin cancer and is a cancer of the melanocytes
What does the ABCDE rule stand for?
To determine the presence of melanoma, look at:
- Asymmetry (symetrical is good)
- Border (even edges is good)
- Color (only one shade is good)
- Diameter (less than 1/4 inch is good)
- Evolving (not changing is good)