Flashcards in Chapter 3: Models of Abnormality Deck (78)
What is the id? What principles does it follow?
-Psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, impulses
-Pleasure principle = always seeking gratification
-All id instincts tend to be sexual --> libido fuels the id
What is the ego? What principle does it follow?
-Psychological force that employs reason
-Reality principle = knowledge we acquire through experience that it can be unacceptable to express our id impulses
List the ego defense mechanisms.
What is the superego?
-Psychological force that represents a person's values and ideals
What does it mean to be fixated?
Condition in which the id, ego, and superego don't mature properly and are stuck at an early stage of development
What is ego theory?
Psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of ego and considers it an independent force
What is self theory?
Psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the self - our unified personality
What is object relations theory?
Psychodynamic theory that view the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior
What is free association?
A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind (even if it seems unimportant)
What is resistance?
An unconscious refusal to fully participate in therapy
What is transference?
Redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated w/ important figures in a patient's life
What is countertransference?
Redirection towards the patient of feelings associated w/ important figures in the psychotherapist's life
What is catharsis?
Reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems
Describe the process of working through.
The psychoanalytic process of facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings, and overcoming ones problems
What is relational psychoanalytic therapy?
-Considers therapists to be active participants in the formation of patients' feelings and reactions
-Calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings to establish more equal partnerships w/ them
Who are the founders of classical conditioning?
-John B. Watson
What is the basic principle of classical conditioning?
Associating events with naturally occurring reflexes
What is classical conditioning?
A process of learning by temporal association in which 2 events that repeated occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response
What are the therapy applications for classical conditioning?
-Traumatic memories and flashbacks
-Maladaptive sexual fantasies (getting turned on by red shoes)
Who founded operant conditioning?
What is the principle of operant conditioning?
Associating behaviors with their consequences
-reward/satisfaction = more likely to be repeated
-punishment = less likely to occur
What are the therapy applications of operant conditioning?
-Behavioral problems (acting out)
-Building of new skills (autism, eating w/ utensils)
What is the principle of modeling?
Learning by watching others and imitating their behaviors
Who founded modeling?
What are the therapy applications of modeling?
-Animal phobias & other specific phobias
-Assertiveness training for social phobias
What is systematic desensitization?
A behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of w/ intense fear to the objects or situations they dread
What is self-efficacy?
Belief that one can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary
What is the basic assumption of cognitive models?
It's not what happens to us that causes us negative emotions but how we think about and interpret what happens to us
Who are the founders of cognitive therapy?