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What is the id? What principles does it follow?

-Psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, impulses
-Pleasure principle = always seeking gratification
-All id instincts tend to be sexual --> libido fuels the id


What is the ego? What principle does it follow?

-Psychological force that employs reason
-Reality principle = knowledge we acquire through experience that it can be unacceptable to express our id impulses


List the ego defense mechanisms.



What is the superego?

-Psychological force that represents a person's values and ideals


What does it mean to be fixated?

Condition in which the id, ego, and superego don't mature properly and are stuck at an early stage of development


What is ego theory?

Psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of ego and considers it an independent force


What is self theory?

Psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the self - our unified personality


What is object relations theory?

Psychodynamic theory that view the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior


What is free association?

A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind (even if it seems unimportant)


What is resistance?

An unconscious refusal to fully participate in therapy


What is transference?

Redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated w/ important figures in a patient's life


What is countertransference?

Redirection towards the patient of feelings associated w/ important figures in the psychotherapist's life


What is catharsis?

Reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems


Describe the process of working through.

The psychoanalytic process of facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings, and overcoming ones problems


What is relational psychoanalytic therapy?

-Considers therapists to be active participants in the formation of patients' feelings and reactions
-Calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings to establish more equal partnerships w/ them


Who are the founders of classical conditioning?

-Ivan Pavlov
-John B. Watson


What is the basic principle of classical conditioning?

Associating events with naturally occurring reflexes


What is classical conditioning?

A process of learning by temporal association in which 2 events that repeated occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response


What are the therapy applications for classical conditioning?

-Traumatic memories and flashbacks
-Chemical addictions
-Maladaptive sexual fantasies (getting turned on by red shoes)


Who founded operant conditioning?

B.F. Skinner


What is the principle of operant conditioning?

Associating behaviors with their consequences
-reward/satisfaction = more likely to be repeated
-punishment = less likely to occur


What are the therapy applications of operant conditioning?

-Behavioral problems (acting out)
-Building of new skills (autism, eating w/ utensils)


What is the principle of modeling?

Learning by watching others and imitating their behaviors


Who founded modeling?

Albert Bandura


What are the therapy applications of modeling?

-Animal phobias & other specific phobias
-Assertiveness training for social phobias


What is systematic desensitization?

A behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of w/ intense fear to the objects or situations they dread


What is self-efficacy?

Belief that one can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary


What is the basic assumption of cognitive models?

It's not what happens to us that causes us negative emotions but how we think about and interpret what happens to us


Who are the founders of cognitive therapy?

-Albert Ellis
-Aaron Beck


What are some applications of cognitive therapy?

-Depression = correct negative thinking patterns
-Anxiety disorders
-Eating disorders = restructure distorted self perceptions
-Substance related disorders = restructure all or nothing thinking
-Personality disorders = reframe irrational thinking