Chapter 3 Network Security Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Network Security Deck (88):
1

1) The Target attackers probably first broke into Target using the credentials of a(n) ________.
A) low-level Target employee
B) Target IT employee
C) Target security employee
D) employee in a firm outside Target

Answer: D

2

2) The Target attackers sold their stolen card information to ________.
A) crimeware shops
B) card shops
C) card counterfeiters
D) Hallmark

Answer: B

3

3) Which of the following probably suffered the most financial damage from the Target breach?
A) Target
B) banks
C) consumers
D) POS vendors

Answer: A

4

4) Which of the following probably suffered the most financial damage from the Target breach?
A) retailers other than Target
B) banks
C) consumers
D) POS terminal vendors

Answer: A

5

5) The general name for evil software is ________.
A) virus
B) worm
C) exploit
D) malware

Answer: D

6

6) The general name for a security flaw in a program is a ________.
A) virus
B) malware
C) security fault
D) vulnerability

Answer: D

7

7) A ________ is a flaw in a program that permits a specific attack or set of attacks against this problem.
A) malware
B) security error
C) vulnerability
D) security fault

Answer: C

8

8) Users typically can eliminate a vulnerability in one of their programs by ________.
A) installing a patch
B) doing a zero-day installation
C) using an antivirus program
D) all of the above

Answer: A

9

9) Vulnerability-based attacks that occur before a patch is available are called ________ attacks.
A) preinstallation
B) stealth
C) malware
D) zero-day

Answer: D

10

10) ________ are full programs.
A) Viruses
B) Worms
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

11

11) Which of the following attach themselves to other programs?
A) Viruses
B) Worms
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

12

12) Viruses most commonly spread from one computer to another ________.
A) via e-mail
B) by propagating directly by themselves
C) through obfuscation
D) all of the above

Answer: A

13

13) Which of the following sometimes uses direct propagation between computers?
A) viruses
B) worms
C) Trojan horses
D) downloaders

Answer: B

14

14) Which of the following can spread more rapidly?
A) directly-propagating viruses
B) directly-propagating worms
C) Both of the above can spread with approximately equal speed.

Answer: B

15

15) Mobile code is another name for ________.
A) virus
B) worm
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: D

16

16) Malware programs that masquerade as system files are called ________.
A) viruses
B) scripts
C) payloads
D) Trojan horses

Answer: D

17

17) Trojan horses can spread by ________.
A) e-mailing themselves to victim computers
B) directly propagating to victim computers
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: D

18

18) The general name for malware on a user's PC that collects sensitive information and sends this information to an attacker is ________.
A) keystroke loggers
B) anti-privacy software
C) spyware
D) data mining software

Answer: C

19

19) A program that can capture passwords as you enter them is ________.
A) a keystroke logger
B) data mining software
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

20

20) Small malware programs that download larger malware programs are called ________.
A) downloaders
B) scouts
C) foothold programs
D) stage-one programs

Answer: A

21

21) Unsolicited commercial e-mail is better known as ________.
A) spam
B) adware
C) social engineering
D) identity theft

Answer: A

22

22) Pieces of code that are executed after the virus or worm has spread are called ________.
A) vulnerabilities
B) exploits
C) compromises
D) payloads

Answer: D

23

23) Tricking users into doing something against their security interests is ________.
A) social engineering
B) hacking
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

24

24) An attack in which an authentic-looking e-mail or website entices a user to enter his or her username, password, or other sensitive information is called ________. (Select the most specific answer.)
A) phishing
B) identity theft
C) social engineering
D) a spyware attack

Answer: A

25

25) An attack aimed at a single person or a small group of individuals is a(n) ________ attack. (Choose the most specific answer.)
A) phishing
B) spear phishing
C) highly targeted
D) customized

Answer: B

26

26) Credit card number thieves are called ________. (Pick the most precise answer.)
A) numbers racketeers
B) fraudsters
C) identity thieves
D) carders

Answer: D

27

27) Which of the following tends to be more damaging to the victim?
A) credit card theft
B) identity theft
C) Both are about equally damaging to the victim.
D) Neither is damaging to the victim.

Answer: B

28

28) Which of the following meets the definition of hacking ________.
A) to intentionally use a computer resource without authorization
B) to use a computer on which you have an account for unauthorized purposes
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

29

29) If you see a username and password on a Post-It note that anyone can see on a monitor, is it hacking if you use this information to log in?
A) Yes
B) No
C) We cannot say from the information given.

Answer: A

30

30) You discover that you can get into other e-mail accounts after you have logged in under your account. You spend just a few minutes looking at another user's mail. Is that hacking?
A) Yes
B) No
C) We cannot say from the information given.

Answer: A

31

31) Methods that hackers use to break into computers are ________.
A) cracks
B) magics
C) exploits
D) compromises

Answer: C

32

32) DoS attacks attempt to ________.
A) hack a computer
B) reduce the availability of a computer
C) steal information from a computer
D) delete files on a computer

Answer: B

33

33) Attack programs that can be remotely controlled by an attacker are ________.
A) bots
B) DoS programs
C) exploits
D) sock puppets

Answer: A

34

34) In distributed DoS attacks, the attacker sends messages directly to ________.
A) bots
B) the intended victim of the DoS attack
C) a command and control server
D) DOS servers

Answer: C

35

35) Which of the following can be upgraded after it is installed on a victim computer? (Choose the most specific answer.)
A) Trojan horses
B) bots
C) viruses
D) worms

Answer: B

36

36) Advanced persistent threats are ________.
A) inexpensive for the attacker
B) extremely dangerous for the victim
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

37

37) What type of attacker are most of attackers today?
A) disgruntled employees and ex-employees
B) career criminals
C) hackers motivated by a sense of power
D) cyberterrorists

Answer: B

38

38) Who are the most dangerous types of employees?
A) financial employees
B) manufacturing employees
C) IT security employees
D) former employees

Answer: C

39

39) What type of attacker can do the most damage?
A) criminal attackers
B) hackers driven by curiosity
C) employees and ex-employees
D) national governments

Answer: D

40

40) A specific encryption method is called a ________.
A) code
B) schema
C) key method
D) cipher

Answer: D

41

41) Using encryption, you make it impossible for attackers to read your messages even if they intercept them. This is ________.
A) authentication
B) confidentiality
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

42

42) In two-way dialogues using symmetric key encryption, how many keys are used for encryption and decryption?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 4
D) none of the above

Answer: A

43

43) In symmetric key encryption, a key must be ________ bits long, or longer, to be considered strong. (Choose the choice closest to the correct answer.)
A) 36
B) 56
C) 64
D) 128

Answer: D

44

44) Electronic signatures provide message-by-message ________.
A) authentication
B) confidentiality
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

45

45) Electronic signatures also provide ________ in addition to authentication.
A) message integrity
B) message encryption
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

46

46) The messages of VPNs ________.
A) share the same transmission lines
B) are encrypted
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

47

47) SSL/TLS is used for ________.
A) Web applications
B) any application
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

48

48) Using SSL/TLS for Web applications is attractive because SSL/TLS ________.
A) is essentially free to use
B) offers the strongest possible cryptographic protections
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

49

49) Requiring someone to use a resource to prove his or her identity is ________.
A) confidentiality
B) authentication
C) authorization
D) both B and C

Answer: B

50

50) In authentication, the ________ is the party trying to prove his or her identity.
A) supplicant
B) verifier
C) true party
D) all of the above

Answer: A

51

51) ________ is the general name for proofs of identity in authentication.
A) Credentials
B) Authorizations
C) Certificates
D) Signatures

Answer: A

52

52) Authentication should generally be ________.
A) as strong as possible
B) appropriate for a specific resource
C) the same for all resources, for consistency
D) all of the above

Answer: B

53

53) Passwords are widely used because they ________.
A) are demanded by users
B) offer strong authentication
C) are the only authentication techniques known by most security professionals
D) are inexpensive to use

Answer: D

54

54) A user picks the password "tiger." This is likely to be cracked quickly by a(n) ________.
A) attack on an application running as root
B) brute-force attack
C) dictionary attack
D) reverse engineering attack

Answer: C

55

55) Prepare2 can be cracked most quickly by a(n) ________.
A) authentication attack
B) brute-force attack
C) dictionary attack
D) hybrid dictionary attack

Answer: D

56

56) A password-cracking attack that tries all combinations of keyboard characters is called a ________.
A) dictionary attack
B) hybrid mode dictionary attack
C) brute-force attack
D) comprehensive keyboard attack

Answer: C

57

57) The password "velociraptor" can be defeated most quickly by a ________.
A) dictionary attack
B) reverse engineering attack
C) brute-force attack
D) None of the above because it is more than 8 characters long.

Answer: A

58

58) To defeat brute-force attacks, a password must be ________.
A) long
B) complex
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: C

59

59) The password "NeVEr" can be defeated by a ________.
A) dictionary attack
B) hybrid dictionary attack
C) brute-force attack
D) none of the above

Answer: C

60

60) The password "R7%t&" can be defeated by a ________.
A) dictionary attack
B) hybrid mode dictionary attack
C) brute-force attack
D) All of the above could defeat the password equally quickly.

Answer: C

61

61) Which of the following is a form of biometrics?
A) reusable passwords
B) digital certificate authentication
C) facial recognition
D) all of the above

Answer: C

62

62) Iris scanning is attractive because of its ________.
A) low cost
B) precision
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

63

63) Which of the following can be done today without the target's knowledge?
A) iris scanning
B) face recognition
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

64

64) In digital certificate authentication, the supplicant encrypts the challenge message with ________.
A) the supplicant's private key
B) the verifier's private key
C) the true party's private key
D) none of the above

Answer: A

65

65) In digital certificate authentication, the verifier gets the key it needs directly from the ________.
A) supplicant
B) verifier
C) true party
D) certificate authority

Answer: D

66

66) In digital certificate authentication, the verifier uses ________.
A) the supplicant's public key
B) the true party's public key
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

67

67) The digital certificate provides the ________.
A) private key of the supplicant
B) private key of the true party
C) public key of the supplicant
D) none of the above

Answer: D

68

68) Debit card is secure because it requires two credentials for authentication. This is also called ________.
A) the supplicant's authentication
B) the verifier's authentication
C) two-factor authentication
D) none of the above

Answer: C

69

69) When a firewall identifies an attack packet, it ________.
A) discards the packet
B) copies information about the packet into a log file
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: C

70

70) A firewall will drop a packet if it ________.
A) is a definite attack packet
B) is a probable attack packet
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

71

71) Firewall log files should be read ________.
A) every month
B) every day
C) every week
D) usually only when a serious attack is suspected

Answer: B

72

72) Egress filtering examines packets ________.
A) arriving from the outside
B) leaving to the outside
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

73

73) ACLs are used for packets in the ________ state.
A) connection-opening
B) ongoing communication
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

74

74) When a packet that is part of an ongoing connection arrives at a stateful inspection firewall, the firewall usually ________.
A) drops the packet
B) drops the packet and notifies an administrator
C) passes the packet
D) passes the packet, but notifies an administrator

Answer: C

75

75) When a packet that is not part of an ongoing connection and that does not attempt to open a connection arrives at a stateful inspection firewall, the firewall ________. (Read this question carefully.)
A) drops the packet
B) passes the packet
C) opens a new connection
D) does not approve the connection

Answer: A

76

76) Stateful firewalls are attractive because of their ________.
A) high filtering sophistication
B) ability to filter complex application content
C) QoS guarantees
D) low cost

Answer: D

77

77) ________ is the dominant firewall filtering method used on main border firewalls today.
A) ACL filtering
B) Application content filtering
C) Stateful packet inspection
D) none of the above

Answer: C

78

78) How will a stateful packet inspection (SPI) firewall handle a packet containing a TCP segment which is an acknowledgement?
A) process it through the Access Control List (ACL)
B) pass it if it is part of an approved connection
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

79

79) How will a stateful packet inspection (SPI) firewall handle a packet containing a TCP SYN segment?
A) process it through the Access Control List (ACL)
B) pass it if it is part of an approved connection
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: A

80

80) How will a stateful packet inspection (SPI) firewall handle a packet containing a TCP FIN segment?
A) process it through the Access Control List (ACL)
B) pass it if it is part of an approved connection
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

81

81) Which type of firewall filtering collects streams of packets to analyze them as a group?
A) static packet filtering
B) stateful packet inspection
C) next-generation
D) none of the above

Answer: C

82

82) Which type of firewall filtering looks at application-layer content?
A) static packet filtering
B) stateful packet inspection
C) NGFW
D) all of the above

Answer: C

83

83) NGFWs ________.
A) can implement different rules for different applications
B) can detect threats that span multiple packets
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: C

84

84) If a packet is highly suspicious but not a provable attack packet, a(n) ________ may drop it.
A) SPI firewall
B) IDS
C) IPS
D) all of the above

Answer: C

85

85) In a firewall, VPN traversal ________.
A) increases the effectiveness of firewall filtering
B) reduces firewall filtering effectiveness
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

86

86) If a firewall does not have the processing power to filter all of the packets that arrive, ________.
A) it will pass some packets without filtering them
B) it will drop packets it cannot process
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B

Answer: B

87

87) ________ look at ________, and ________ look at ________.
A) Antivirus programs, packets, firewalls, packets
B) Antivirus programs, files, firewalls, files
C) Antivirus programs, packets, firewalls, files
D) Antivirus programs, files, firewalls, packets

Answer: D

88

88) In antivirus filtering, the best ways to filter currently use ________.
A) application awareness
B) stateful inspection
C) signature detection
D) behavioral detection

Answer: D