Chapter 3 Neurons: The Origin of Behaviour Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Neurons: The Origin of Behaviour Deck (77):
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Neuron

Cells in nervous system that communicate with one another to perform info-processing tasks

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Santiago Cajal

Used Golgi staining to highlight appearance of neurons

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Cell Body

Largest component of the neuron that coordinates info-processing tasks and keeps cells alive

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Dendrites

Receive information

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Axon

Carries information

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Myelin Sheath

Insulating layer of fatty material

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Glial Cells

Make up the sheath and act as support cells (e.g. digest parts of dead neurons, provide physical and nutritional support)

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Synapse

Junction between axon and dendrite

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Sensory Neurons

Receive information from external world

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Motor Neurons

Carry signals from spinal cord to the muscles

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Interneurons

Connect sensory neurons and motor neutrons

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Purjinke Cells

Type of interneuron that carries information from cerebellum to rest of brain (BUSH)

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Pyramidal Cells

Type of interneuron found in cerebral cortex (LONG DENDRITE)

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Bipolar Cells

Type of sensory neuron found in the retinas of the eye with single axon and single dendrite

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Conduction

Movement of electric signal within neurons

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Transmission

Movement of electric signal from one neuron to the other

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Resting Potential

Difference in electric charge between inside and outside of neuron's cell membrane

High K and A inside, high Na and Cl outside

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Action Potential

Electric signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron's axon to synapse

All or none

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Refractory Period

Time following an action potential

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Node of Ranvier

Electric current jumps from node to node in saltatory conduction

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Terminal Buttons

Contain vesicles with neurotransmitters

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Receptors

Parts of cell membrane that receive neurotransmitters

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Three Processes of Neurotransmitter Leaving

1 Reuptake
2 Deactivation
3 Bind to autoreceptors

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Acetylcholine

Involved in voluntary motor control

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Dopamine

Involved in motor behaviour, motivation, pleasure, emotional arousal

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Glutamate

Involved in transmission of information between neurons; primary excitatory neurotransmitter (VS GABA)

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Norepinephrine

Involved in states of vigilance and heightened awareness

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Serotonin

Involved in regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating and aggressive behaviour

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Endorphin

Involved in pain pathways and emotion centers

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Agonists

Drugs that increase the action of neurotransmitter

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Antagonist

Drugs that block function of neurotransmitter

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CNS

Composed of brain and spinal cord

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PNS

Connects CNS to body's organs and muscles

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Somatic Nervous System

Part of PNS that conveys information between voluntary and CNS

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Autonomic Nervous System

Part of PNS that connects involuntary commands

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Sympathetic Nervous System

Nerves that prepare the body for action in challenging or threatening situations

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

Nerves that help the body return to normal resting state

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Spinal Reflexes

Simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions

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Hindbrain

Area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord; stalk on which the rest of the brain sits; controls basic functions--respiration, alertness and motor skills

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Medulla

Extension the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation and respiration

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Reticular Formation

Regulates sleep wakefulness and levels of arousal

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Cerebellum

A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills

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Pons

A structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain

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Midbrain

Contains:
1 Tectum - orients an organism in environment
2 Tegmentum - involed in movement arousal

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Forebrain

Highest level of the brain that controls complex cognitive, emotional, sensory and motor functions

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Cerebral Cortex

Outermost layer of the brain divided into two hemispheres

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Subcortical Structures

Areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the center of the brain

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Thalamus

Relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex

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Hypothalamus

Regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst and sexual behaviour

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Pituitary Gland

Master gland of the body's hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct the functions of other glands

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Oxytocin

Stimulates release of milk

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Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

Released in time of stress, stimulates adrenal glands

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Limbic System

Group of forebrain structures involved in motivation, emotion, learning and memory

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Hippocampus

Critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge

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Amygdala

Plays a central role in emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories

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Basal Ganglia

Directs intentional movements

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Gyri

Smooth surfaces of the cortex

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Sulci

Indentations or fissures

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Corpus Callosum

Connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information

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Occipital Lobe

Processes visual information

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Parietal Lobe

Processes information about touch; includes somatosensory cortex

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Homunculus

Illustrates the somatosensory cortex

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Temporal Lobe

Processes auditory and language information

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Frontal Lobe

Processes movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory and judgement

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Association Areas

Composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex

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Mirror Neurons

Activate when an animal performs a behaviour as well as when another animal observes the animal performing the behaviour

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Ontogeny

How brain develops within an individual

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Phylogeny

How brain develops within a particular species

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Gene

Major unit of hereditary transmission

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Chromosomes

Strands of DNA in double helix configuration

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Epigenetics

Environmental influences that determine whether or not genes are expressed and the degree to which they are expressed

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DNA Methylation

Adding methyl group to DNA

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Histone Modification

Adding chemical modifications to proteins called histones that are involved in packaging DNA

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Heritabilitity

Measure for variability of behavioural traits among individuals that can be accounted for by genetic factors

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Phineas Gage

Change in personality after frontal lobe was affected

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Roger Sperry

Studied people who had corpus collosum severed

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Electrocephalograph

Device used to record electrical activity in the brain