Flashcards in Chapter 3- PharChem lec Deck (89):
Different fluid compartments
1. Intracellular fluid
2. Interstitial fluid
3. Plasma and vascular fluid
Include both interstitial and vascular fluids
Other membranes are permeable to what?
Water, many organic and inorganic solutes
Other membranes are nearly permeable to what?
Macromolecules such as proteins
Other membranes are selectively permeable to what?
Certain ions such as sodium, potassium and magnesium
Found in the plasma and interstitial fluids.
Sodium and chloride
Found in the intracellular fluid
Potassium, magnesium and phosphate
Synonyms of sodium chloride
Table salt, sea salt, sal and asin
Solid state of NaCl
Rock salt, halite, fossil salts and sal gemme
Soltion of NaCl is found where?
Sea, some lakes, springs and wells
Common impurities in NaCl
Calcium and magnesium
Impurities of NaCl is readily precipitated by adding what to the brine?
Concentrated solution of sodium carbonate
Colorless, cubic crystals or as white, crystalline powder having a saline taste.
Wet dressings for irritating body cavities or tissues and as injections when fluids and electrolytes have been depleted in isotonic proportions.
Uses if NaCl
Administered for maintenance therapy when patients are unable to take fluid and nutrients orally
Usual caloric source
Used when there is loss of sodium in an excess of water
Categorized as fluid and electrolyte replenisher. Large amounts produces emesis, catharsis and diuresis. An antidote to silver poisonings, condiment and preservative.
Found in large deposits in the form of sylvite
Colorless, elongated, prismatic or cubical crystals or as a white, granular powder. Odorless, has a saline taste and is stable in air.
Potassium chloride is a component of what?
Ringer's injection and solution
Lactated ringer's injection
Is given to patients with severe hypopotassemia or if the patient is unable to take potassium orally.
Potassium chloride injection
Treatment of familial periodic paralysis, meniere' syndrome, and as an antidote to digitalis intoxication.
A recurring, rapidly progressive, flaccid paralysis.
Familial periodic diseases
Disease of the inner ear which includes dizziness and noise in the ear.
Synonyms of potassium chloride
Kalium chloride, kali chloridum
Synonyms of calcium chloride
Cloruro de calico, muriate of lime, fosforo de homberg
Salt composes of white, slightly translucent, hard fragments or granules odorless with a sharp bitter saline taste and very deliquescent.
Where is calcium chloride insoluble?
Ether, chloroform and fixed and volatile oils.
Used in internal hemorrhages, in certain bone diseases, nervous disordets and whenever there is deficiency of calcium in the system.
Treatment of choice for hypocalcemia
Constantly being produced during metabolism
Efficient buffer systems
Monogydrogen phosohate/dihydrogen phosohate
Hemoglobin and proteins
Found in the plasma and kidneys
Found in the cells and kidneys
Monohydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate
Found in the red blood cells
Hemoglobin and proteins
pH dropping slightly below 7.38
pH increasing slightly above 7.42
Solutions of inorganic and organic solutes
Deficit - diabetic acidosis, renal failure, diarrhea
Metabolic acidosis HCO3
Excess - administration of excess alkali, vomiting
Primary H2CO3 excess - cardiac disease, lung damage, drowning
Primary H2CO3 deficit - fever, hysteria, anoxia, salicylate poisoning
Causing increased excretion of H2CO3 as CO2
Cauising increased H2CO3 concentration
3 mechanisms maintaining the normal acid-base of the plasma
1. Buffers of the body fluids and red blood cells
2. Pulmonary excretion of excess CO2
3. Renal excretion of either acid or base
Treated with the sodium salts of bicarbonate, lactate, acetate and citrate
Treated with ammonium salts
Synonyms of sodium acetate
Acetate of soda, acetado de sosa
Colorless, transparent crystals, as a white granular crystalline powder or as a white flake. Odorless ir has a faint acetous odor.
Uses of sodium acetate
Effective buffer in metabolic acidosis of acute cholera, diuretic, diaphoretic, aperient and systemic alkalizer
Corrected by infusion of sodium acetate
Uremic acidosis (acidic urine)
Synonym of potassium acetate
Colorless, monoclinic crystals or as white crystalline powder. Has a saline and alkaline taste. Categorized as alkalinizer.
In doses of 1-4 g, potassium acetate is used as what?
Diaphoretic and diuretic
In large doses, potassium acetate is used as what?
Synonyms of sodium bicarbonate
Baking soda, soda saleratus, sal de vichy, soda acid carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, bicarbonate of soda
White, crystalline powder which is stable in dry air, but slowly decompose in moist air.
Ways of sterilizing sodium bicarbonate
1. Bacteriological filtration
3. Heating the bicarbonate solution in an open vessel and resaturating the cooled solution with sterile carbon dioxide.
Liberated CO2 bubbling through the liquid
Most important plasma buffer
Bicarbonate/carbonic acid system
Used to combat gastric hyperacidity and to combat systemic acidosis. Administered parenterally and orally. Treatment of methyl alcohol poisoning.
Synonyms of potassium bicarbonate
Potassium acid carbonate, saleratus
Colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms or as a white gtanilar powder which is odorless and is stable in air.
Potassium carbonate is classified as what?
Used as an antacid for people who must restrict their dodium intake but there us a ridk of hyperpotassemia with prolonged use
Colorless crystals, or as white crystalline powder
Uses of sodium citrate
Anticoagulant for whole blood, restore bicarbonate reserve in chronic acidosis, also has a diuretic effect due to increased body salt concentration
Used for the chelation if other cations
Transparent crystals or as white granular powder. Odorless l, has a cooling saline taste and is deliquescent when exposed to moist air.
Potassium citrate is used as a?
Systemic alkalizer, diuretic, duaphoretic, expectorant, laxative and gastric antacid
Intended to supply nirmal requirements for water and electrolytes to patients who cannot take them orally
Maintenance therapy with intravenius fluids
Metabolites associated with starvation
Urea, phosphate and ketone bodies
2 groups of combination products
1. Fluid maintenance
2. Electrolyte replacement
General electrolyte composition in addition to dextrose
Na, Cl, HCO3, Mg and HPO4 ions
Contains 8.6 g NaCl, 0.3 g KCl and 0.33 g CaCl2
Each 100 mL contains 600 mg CaCl2 and 310 mg Sodium lactate
Lactated Ringer's injection
Used to supply water and electrolytes in amounts needed for maintenance as soon as intake of usual goods and liquids is discontinued and before serious fluid losses or deficits occur
Oral electrolyte solution