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Flashcards in Chapter 3- PharChem lec Deck (89):
1

Different fluid compartments

1. Intracellular fluid
2. Interstitial fluid
3. Plasma and vascular fluid

2

Include both interstitial and vascular fluids

Extracellular fluids

3

Other membranes are permeable to what?

Water, many organic and inorganic solutes

4

Other membranes are nearly permeable to what?

Macromolecules such as proteins

5

Other membranes are selectively permeable to what?

Certain ions such as sodium, potassium and magnesium

6

Found in the plasma and interstitial fluids.

Sodium and chloride

7

Found in the intracellular fluid

Potassium, magnesium and phosphate

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NaCl

Sodium Chloride

9

Synonyms of sodium chloride

Table salt, sea salt, sal and asin

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Solid state of NaCl

Rock salt, halite, fossil salts and sal gemme

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Soltion of NaCl is found where?

Sea, some lakes, springs and wells

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Common impurities in NaCl

Calcium and magnesium

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Impurities of NaCl is readily precipitated by adding what to the brine?

Concentrated solution of sodium carbonate

14

Colorless, cubic crystals or as white, crystalline powder having a saline taste.

Sodium chloride

15

Wet dressings for irritating body cavities or tissues and as injections when fluids and electrolytes have been depleted in isotonic proportions.

Uses if NaCl

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Administered for maintenance therapy when patients are unable to take fluid and nutrients orally

Hypotonic solutions

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Usual caloric source

Dextrose (glucose)

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Used when there is loss of sodium in an excess of water

Hypertonic injections

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Categorized as fluid and electrolyte replenisher. Large amounts produces emesis, catharsis and diuresis. An antidote to silver poisonings, condiment and preservative.

Sodium chloride

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KCl

Potassium chloride

21

Found in large deposits in the form of sylvite

Potassium chloride

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MgCl2•KCl•6H20

Carnallite

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Colorless, elongated, prismatic or cubical crystals or as a white, granular powder. Odorless, has a saline taste and is stable in air.

Potassium chloride

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Potassium chloride is a component of what?

Ringer's injection and solution
Lactated ringer's injection

25

Is given to patients with severe hypopotassemia or if the patient is unable to take potassium orally.

Potassium chloride injection

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Treatment of familial periodic paralysis, meniere' syndrome, and as an antidote to digitalis intoxication.

Potassium chloride

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A recurring, rapidly progressive, flaccid paralysis.

Familial periodic diseases

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Disease of the inner ear which includes dizziness and noise in the ear.

Meniere's syndrome

29

CaCl2•2H20

Calcium chloride

30

Synonyms of potassium chloride

Kalium chloride, kali chloridum

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Synonyms of calcium chloride

Cloruro de calico, muriate of lime, fosforo de homberg

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Salt composes of white, slightly translucent, hard fragments or granules odorless with a sharp bitter saline taste and very deliquescent.

Calcium chloride

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Where is calcium chloride insoluble?

Ether, chloroform and fixed and volatile oils.

34

Used in internal hemorrhages, in certain bone diseases, nervous disordets and whenever there is deficiency of calcium in the system.

Calcium chloride

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Treatment of choice for hypocalcemia

Calcium gluconate

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Constantly being produced during metabolism

Acids

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Efficient buffer systems

Bicarbonate/carbonic acid
Monogydrogen phosohate/dihydrogen phosohate
Hemoglobin and proteins

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Found in the plasma and kidneys

Bucatbonate/carbonic acid

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Found in the cells and kidneys

Monohydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate

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Found in the red blood cells

Hemoglobin and proteins

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pH dropping slightly below 7.38

Acidosis

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pH increasing slightly above 7.42

Alkalosis

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Solutions of inorganic and organic solutes

Body fluids

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Deficit - diabetic acidosis, renal failure, diarrhea

Metabolic acidosis HCO3

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Excess - administration of excess alkali, vomiting

Metabolic alkalosis

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Primary H2CO3 excess - cardiac disease, lung damage, drowning

Respiratiry acidosis

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Primary H2CO3 deficit - fever, hysteria, anoxia, salicylate poisoning

Respiratory alkalosis

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Causing increased excretion of H2CO3 as CO2

Hyperventilation

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Cauising increased H2CO3 concentration

CO2 retention

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3 mechanisms maintaining the normal acid-base of the plasma

1. Buffers of the body fluids and red blood cells
2. Pulmonary excretion of excess CO2
3. Renal excretion of either acid or base

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Treated with the sodium salts of bicarbonate, lactate, acetate and citrate

Metabolic acidosis

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Treated with ammonium salts

Metabolic alkalosis

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CH3COONa•3H20

Sodium acetate

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Synonyms of sodium acetate

Acetate of soda, acetado de sosa

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Colorless, transparent crystals, as a white granular crystalline powder or as a white flake. Odorless ir has a faint acetous odor.

Sodium acetate

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Uses of sodium acetate

Effective buffer in metabolic acidosis of acute cholera, diuretic, diaphoretic, aperient and systemic alkalizer

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Corrected by infusion of sodium acetate

Uremic acidosis (acidic urine)

58

CH3COOK

Potassium acetate

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Synonym of potassium acetate

Diuretic salt

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Colorless, monoclinic crystals or as white crystalline powder. Has a saline and alkaline taste. Categorized as alkalinizer.

Potassium acetate

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In doses of 1-4 g, potassium acetate is used as what?

Diaphoretic and diuretic

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In large doses, potassium acetate is used as what?

Cathartic

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NaHCO3

Sodium bicarbonate

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Synonyms of sodium bicarbonate

Baking soda, soda saleratus, sal de vichy, soda acid carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, bicarbonate of soda

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White, crystalline powder which is stable in dry air, but slowly decompose in moist air.

Sodium bicarbonate

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Ways of sterilizing sodium bicarbonate

1. Bacteriological filtration
2. Autoclaving
3. Heating the bicarbonate solution in an open vessel and resaturating the cooled solution with sterile carbon dioxide.

67

Liberated CO2 bubbling through the liquid

Effervescence

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Most important plasma buffer

Bicarbonate/carbonic acid system

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Used to combat gastric hyperacidity and to combat systemic acidosis. Administered parenterally and orally. Treatment of methyl alcohol poisoning.

Sodium bicarbonate

70

KHCO3

Potassium bicarbonate

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Synonyms of potassium bicarbonate

Potassium acid carbonate, saleratus

72

Colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms or as a white gtanilar powder which is odorless and is stable in air.

Potassium bicarbonate

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Potassium carbonate is classified as what?

Electrolyte replenisher

74

Used as an antacid for people who must restrict their dodium intake but there us a ridk of hyperpotassemia with prolonged use

Potassium bicarbonate

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C6H5Na3O7

Sodium Citrate

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Colorless crystals, or as white crystalline powder

Sodium citrate

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Uses of sodium citrate

Anticoagulant for whole blood, restore bicarbonate reserve in chronic acidosis, also has a diuretic effect due to increased body salt concentration

78

Used for the chelation if other cations

Citrates

79

C6H5K3O7•H20

Potassium citrate

80

Transparent crystals or as white granular powder. Odorless l, has a cooling saline taste and is deliquescent when exposed to moist air.

Potassium citrate

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Potassium citrate is used as a?

Systemic alkalizer, diuretic, duaphoretic, expectorant, laxative and gastric antacid

82

Intended to supply nirmal requirements for water and electrolytes to patients who cannot take them orally

Maintenance therapy with intravenius fluids

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Metabolites associated with starvation

Urea, phosphate and ketone bodies

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2 groups of combination products

1. Fluid maintenance
2. Electrolyte replacement

85

General electrolyte composition in addition to dextrose

Na, Cl, HCO3, Mg and HPO4 ions

86

Contains 8.6 g NaCl, 0.3 g KCl and 0.33 g CaCl2

Ringer's injection

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Each 100 mL contains 600 mg CaCl2 and 310 mg Sodium lactate

Lactated Ringer's injection

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Used to supply water and electrolytes in amounts needed for maintenance as soon as intake of usual goods and liquids is discontinued and before serious fluid losses or deficits occur

Oral electrolyte solution

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Given to replace mild to moderate fluid losses due to diarrhea and other conditions associated withexcessive fluid loss or deficit fluid intake.

Oral electrolyte solutions