Flashcards in Chapter 3- Prenatal Development Deck (93):
List two major reasons that family size has declined in industrialized nations
More effective birth control, a few smaller's family size is more compatible with a woman's decision to divide her energies between family and career, marital instability-more couples get divorced before having children
What are the benefits of growing up in a small family?
More parental affection, attention, and material resources per child, which enhance children's intellectual development
True or false: children's mental test performance tends to decline with later birth order
False, Studies have shown that children's mental test performance does not decline was later birth order. The larger the family, however, the lower the scores of all siblings
True or false: as new children are born, parents reallocate their energies to accommodate the needs of both older and younger children
What are reasons that many modern couples are delaying child bearing into their 30s and beyond?
Waiting until their education is complete, their careers are established, and they know they can support a child. More financially better off and more mature
True or false: both males and females experience a decline in reproductive capacity with age
Approximately once every 28 days, and ovum is released from one of a woman's two ________, and it travels through one of the two ________ ______, which are long, thin structures that lead to the uterus
Ovaries; fallopian tubes
The mail produces a vast numbers of sperm in the _______, two glands located in the scrotum
True or false: sperm live for up to 10 days and can lie in wait for the ovum, which survived for three days after being released in the fallopian tube
False, sperm live for up to six days and The ovum survives for only one day
The vast changes that take place during the 38 weeks of pregnancy are usually divided into three phases:
The period of the zygote, the period of the embryo, and the period of the fetus
The period of the zygote lasts about ______ weeks, from fertilization until the tiny mass of cells drifts down and out of the fallopian tube and attaches itself to the wall of the uterus
By the fourth day of the period of the zygote, 60 to 70 cells exist that form a hollow, fluid filled ball call a:
Hollow, fluid filled ball that is formed by a tiny mass of cells four days after fertilization
The cells on the inside of the blastocyst will become the new organism and is called the:
The thin outer ring of cells that will become the structures that provide protective covering and nourishment to the fetus
Between the seventh and ninth days after fertilization, this occurs where the blastocyst burrows deep into the uterine lining
The trophoblast multiplies and forms a membrane, called the ______, that encloses the developing organism in _______ _____, which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against any jolts caused by the woman's movement
Amnion; amniotic fluid
True or false: as many as 30% of zygotes do not make it through the first two weeks
By the end of the second week of pregnancy, cells of the trophoblast form ms another protective membrane which surrounds the amnion called the
By bringing the mothers and the embryos blood close together, the ________ permits food and oxygen to reach the developing organism and waste products to be carried away
The placenta is connected to the developing organism by this, which first appears as a primitive body stock and during the course of pregnancy, grows to a length of 1 to 3 feet. It contains one large vein that delivers blood loaded with nutrients and two arteries that removes waste products
The umbilical cord
The period of the embryo lasts from implantation through the ______ week of pregnancy
True or false: the most rapid prenatal changes take place during the period of the embryo
During these briefs six weeks, the most rapid prenatal changes take place, as the groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs
In the first week of the period embryo, the embryonic disk formed three layers of cells:
The ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm
List the organs and structures that will be formed from each of the three layers of the embryonic desk, the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm
The ectoderm will become the nervous system and skin
The mesoderm Will become the muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs
The endoderm will become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands
During the period of the embryo, the nervous system develops fastest and the ectoderm folds over to form the spinal cord or ______ ______
Briefly summarize prenatal growth during the second month of pregnancy
Growth continues rapidly, the eyes, ears, nose, job, and neck form. Tiny buds become arms, legs, fingers, and toes. Internal organs are more distinct and changing body proportions cause the embryos posture to become more upright. The embryo can sense it's world and response to touch and can move, although it's tiny flutters are still too light to be felt by the mother
True or false: the sex of the developing fetus can be determined, via ultrasound, starting in the third month of pregnancy
During this period, from the ninth week to the end of pregnancy, the longest prenatal period, the developing organism increases rapidly in size, especially from the ninth to the 20th week. It is a growth and finishing phase.
The period of the fetus
Prenatal development is divided into three equal time periods, also called:
This is a white, cheeselike substance that protects the fetuses skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in the amniotic fluid
white, downy hair that covers the entire body of the fetus which helps the vernix stick to the skin
The age at which the baby can first survive if born early is called the: it typically occurs:
The age of viability, occurs sometime between 22 and 26 weeks
How does the enlargement of the cerebral cortex impact the developing fetus?
Convolutions and grooves in its surface appear, permitting a dramatic increase in surface area that allows for maximum prenatal brain growth without the full-term babies head becoming too large to pass through the birth canal. As neurological organization approves, the fetus spends more time awake
At 20 weeks, fetal heart rate reveals no periods of alertness. But by 28 weeks, fetuses are awake about __ percent of the time, a figure that rises to 16% just before birth. Between 30 and 34 weeks, fetuses show rhythmic alternations between ______ and __________. By the end of pregnancy, the fetus also takes on the beginnings of a _________-higher fetal activity in the last weeks of pregnancy predicts a more active infant in the first month of life.
11, sleep and wakefulness, personality
During the third trimester, can fetuses distinguish the tone and rhythm of different voices and sounds?
Yes, fetuses distinguish the tone and rhythm of different voices and sound-they show systematic heart rate changes in response to a male versus a female speaker, to the mother's voice versus a strangers, to a stranger speaking their native language versus a foreign language, and to a simple familiar Melody versus an unfamiliar Melody
Describe the major changes in the fetus during the final three months of pregnancy
The fetus gains more than 5 pounds and grow 7 inches. A layer of fat is added to assist with temperature regulation. The fetus receives anti-bodies from the mothers blood to protect against illnesses. Assumes an upside down position in the last weeks, partly because of the shape of the uterus and partly because the head is heavier than the feet
Any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
What are four factors that affect the impact of teratogens on the developing organism?
Dose: larger doses over longer time usually have more negative effects
Heredity: the genetic makeup of the mother and the developing organism plays in important role, some individuals are better able than others to withstand harmful environments
Other negative influences: the presence of several negative factors at once, such as additional teratogens, poor nutrition, and lack of medical care, can worsen the impact of a single harmful agent
Age: for instance, during the sensitive period when the child is developing rapidly, it is especially sensitive to it surroundings and harmful environments
A limited time span in which a part of the body or a behavior is biologically prepared to develop rapidly and is especially sensitive to its surroundings
The sensitive period
True or false: the period of the zygote is the time when teratogens are most likely to cause serious defects
False, in the period of the zygote, before implantation, teratogens rarely have any impact. The embryonic period Is the time when serious defects are most likely to occur because The foundations for all body parts are being laid down. During the fetal., Damage is usually minor as well however organs such as the brain, ears, eyes, teeth, and genitals can still be strongly affected
A commonly used prescription acne medication that causes widespread abnormalities in the developing fetus
Accutane or isotretinoin
True or false: heavy caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and increased risk of miscarriage
True, as amounts exceed 100 mg of caffeine per day, about 1 cup of coffee, low birth weight and miscarriage increase
Describe the difficulties faced by babies who are prenatally exposed to cocaine, heroin, or methadone
Beer at risk for a wide variety of problems, including prematurity, low birth weight, physical defects, breathing difficulties, and death around the time of birth. They are born drug addicted and are often feverish and irritable and have trouble sleeping. Their cries are abnormally shrill and piercing.
Explain why it is difficult to isolate the precise damage caused by prenatal drug exposure
Some research shows major negative effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and some do not. Cocaine users vary greatly in the amount, potency, and purity of the cocaine they ingest. Mothers often take several drugs, display other high-risk behaviors, suffer from poverty and other stresses, and engage in insensitive caregiving-factors that worsen outcomes for children.
What are the potential consequences of prenatal exposure to tobacco?
Low birth weight, miscarriage, prematurity, impaired heart rate and breathing during sleep, infant death, and asthma and cancer later in childhood. Newborns are less attentive to sounds, display more muscle tension, are more excitable when touched and visually stimulated, and more often have colic or persistent crying. Adolescents tend to have a shorter attention span's, difficulties with impulsivity and overactivity, poor memories, lower mental test scores, and more externalizing behavior problems
True or false: if the mother stops smoking at any time during her pregnancy, even during the last trimester, she reduces the chances that her baby will be negatively impact
Explain the mechanisms through which smoking harms the fetus
Nicotine constricts blood vessels, lessons blood flow to the uterus, and causes the placenta to grow abnormally. This reduces the transfer of nutrients, so the fetus gains weight poorly. Nicotine raises the concentration of carbon monoxide in the bloodstream for both mother and fetus which displaces oxygen from red blood cells, damaging the central nervous system and slowing body growth in the fetuses of laboratory animals.
From 1/3 to 1/2 of non-smoking pregnant women are _______ ________ because their husbands, relatives, or coworkers use cigarettes
Passive smokers. Also related to low birth weight, infant death, childhood respiratory illnesses, and possible long-term attention, learning, and behavior problems
Infants you have a range of physical and behavioral abnormalities and whose mothers drank heavily throughout most or all of pregnancy are said to have
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder FASD
Distinguished by slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities, and brain injury
Fetal alcohol syndrome and FAS
Characterized by two of the three facial abnormalities and brain injury
Partial fetal alcohol syndrome and P-FAS
At least three areas of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities
Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder ARND
Describe physical and mental impairments associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders that persist from the preschool years through adolescence and early adulthood
Preschool and school years: poorer Motor coordination, speed of information processing, reasoning, and intelligence and achievement test scores
Adolescence and early adulthood: persisting attention and motor coordination deficits, poor school performance, trouble with the law, inappropriate sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and lasting mental health problems
What are two ways in which alcohol produces it's devastating effects?
It interferes with the production and migration of neurons in the primitive neural tube-reduced brain size, damaged to many brain structures, and abnormalities in brain functioning, including the electrical and chemical activity involved in transferring messages from one part of the brain to another
The body uses large quantities of oxygen to metabolize alcohol, a pregnant woman's heavy drinking draws away oxygen that the developing organism needs for cell growth
True or false: mild drinking, less then one alcoholic drink per day, is associated with poor outcomes for the child. Therefore, no amount of alcohol is safe to drink during pregnancy
True or false: low doses of radiation exposure, such as through medical x-rays, are believed to be safe for the developing fetus and have not been linked to any negative outcomes
False, even low-level radiation such as through x-rays, can increase the risk of childhood cancer
In the 1950s, children prenatally exposed to this teratogen in a Japanese community displayed mental retardation, abnormal speech, and uncoordinated movements
Women who ate fish contaminated with this substance gave birth to babies with slightly reduced birth weights, smaller heads, persisting attention and memory difficulties, and lower intelligence test scores in childhood
This teratogen, commonly found in paint chipping from old buildings and other industrial materials, is related to low birth weight, prematurity, brain damage, and physical defects
List the outcomes associated with embryonic and fetal exposure to rubella
Embryonic: deafness, I deformities including cataracts, heart, genital, urinary, intestinal, bone, and dental defects, and mental retardation
Fetal: less harmful, but low birth weight, hearing loss, and bone defects may still occur
What percent of the time do women carrying the AIDS virus pass on the disease to their baby?
20 to 30% of the time
True or false: there is no known drug that can reduce the risk of prenatal aids transmission
False, the antiviral drug Zidovudine ZDV, reduces prenatal aids transmission by as much as 95%, with no harmful consequences of drug treatment for children
Pregnant women can become infected with this disease, a parasitic disease found in many animals, from eating raw or undercooked meat or from contact with the feces of infected cats
List four health problems in adults that have been associated with low birth weight
Heart disease, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure
True or false: low birth weight babies often remain underweight in childhood and throughout their lives
False, they often gain excessive weight in childhood, once they have access to plentiful food and this excess weight usually persists, greatly increasing the risk of diabetes
According to research, why does a high birthweight lead to an increased risk of breast cancer later in life?
Excessive maternal estrogen in the overweight expectant mother, which promotes large fetal size and alters the make up of beginning breast tissue so that it may respond to estrogen in adulthood by becoming malignant
Regular, moderate exercise during pregnancy is associated with _________ birthweight and an __________ risk of maternal diabetes and high blood pressure
Increased birth weight, and decreased risk of maternal diabetes and high blood pressure
What are the behavioral and health problems of prenatally malnourished babies?
Women are more likely to have miscarriages or give birth to babies with physical defects, babies were born underweight and had small heads.
Causes serious damage to the central nervous system. The poorer the mothers diet, the greater the loss in brain weight especially in the third trimester. Can also distort the structure of other organs, including the liver, kidney, and pancreas, resulting in lifelong health problems.
Frequently catch respiratory illnesses due to the poor nutrition suppressing their immune system. They are often irritable and unresponsive stimulation and having a high-pitched cry that is particularly distressing to their caregivers. Low intelligence test scores and serious learning problems become more apparent with age
List six vitamin and mineral supplements that have been found to reduce prenatal complications and birth defects
Folic acid, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iodine, vitamin C, iron
True or false: prenatal malnutrition is currently limited to developing countries, and it has been entirely eradicated in the United States to government programs for low income pregnant women
Balls, it is not limited to developing countries. The programs in the US only reach about 90% of those who qualify because of their extremely low incomes and many US women who need nutrition intervention are not eligible
Describe the mechanisms through which maternal stress affects the developing organism, and note outcomes associated with severe emotional stress during pregnancy
Intense anxiety is associated with higher rates of miscarriage, prematurity, low birth weight, infant respiratory and digestive illnesses, colic, sleep disturbances, and irritability during the child's first three years. Also related to several commonly occurring physical defects, such as cleft lip and palate, heart deformities, and pyloric stenosis or tightening of the infant stomach outlet
When we experience fear and anxiety, stimulant hormones released into her bloodstream and blood flow to other organs, including the uterus, is reduced. As a result, the fetus is deprived of a full supply of oxygen and nutrients. Maternal stress hormones also cross the placenta, causing a dramatic rise in fetal stress hormones and in fetal heart rate, blood pressure, and activity level and these excessive fetal stress levels may permanently altered neurological functioning, thereby heightening stress reactivity in later life
When the mother is Rh negative and the father is RH positive, the baby may inherit the fathers Rh positive blood. Even if a little of the fetus's Rh positive blood crosses the placenta into the Rh negative's mothers bloodstream, she begins to form anti-bodies to the foreign Rh protein. If these Andrew the fetuses system, they destroy red blood cells, reducing the oxygen supply to organs and tissues. This is called:
Rh factor incompatibility
Are problems resulting from the Rh factor more likely to affect firstborn or later born children?
Later born children, it takes time for the mother to produce Rh anti-bodies, so firstborn children are rarely affected
True or false: healthy women in their 30s experience far more prenatal difficulties and women in their 20s
False, research consistently indicates that healthy women in their 30s have about the same rates as those in their 20s
Does the physical immaturity of teenage mothers usually lead to pregnancy complications?
Infants born to teenagers have a higher rate of problems, but not directly because of maternal age. Most pregnant teenagers come from low income backgrounds, where stress, poor nutrition, and health problems are common and many afraid to seek medical care or don't have access
How does the nurse-family partnership seek to improve quality-of-life for expectant mothers and their children?
It is a voluntary home visiting program for first time, low income expectant mothers and its goals are to reduce pregnancy and birth complications, promote competent early caregiving, and improve family conditions, thereby protecting children from lasting adjustment difficulties
How did mothers and children benefit from the nurse-family partnership?
Children: obtain higher language and intelligent scores and display fewer behavior problems
Mothers: we're on a more favorable life course, they had fewer subsequent birds, longer intervals between the first and second birth, more frequent contact with the child's father, more stable intimate partnerships, less welfare dependents, and a greater sense of control over their lives-key factors in reducing subsequent prenatal stress and in protecting children's development
Were professional nurses or trained paraprofessionals most effective in preventing poor outcomes associated with prenatal stress through the nurse-family partnership?
Professional nurses were far more effective than trained paraprofessionals as they were more proficient in individualizing program guidelines to fit the strengths and challenges faced by each family
A complication that can arise during pregnancy in which blood pressure increases sharply and the face, hands, and feet swell in the second half of pregnancy. If untreated it can cause convulsions and the mother and fetal death
A complication that can arise during pregnancy where extra sugar in the mothers bloodstream increases the risk of pregnancy and birth problems, as well as brain damage and later learning difficulties
Name two groups of women who often do not receive adequate prenatal care, and note the consequences for their babies
Adolescent and low income, ethnic minority mothers.
Their infants are three times as likely to be born underweight and five times as likely to die
What are some of the barriers to obtaining prenatal healthcare?
In the US, lacking health insurance. Also, situational barriers such as difficulty finding a doctor or getting an appointment and personal barriers such as psychological stress, family crises, or lack of knowledge. Mothers who engage in high-risk behavior such as smoking and drug abuse may not want to reveal this to health professionals
True or false: low income ethnic minority adults are twice as likely as white adults to suffer from diabetes
What percentage of pregnant mothers are diabetic today?
List the consequences of the mothers high blood glucose levels on the developing fetus
Increases risk of birth defects in the early weeks of pregnancy, later in pregnancy, causes the fetus to be overfed and to grow unusually large, often causing birth complications. To metabolize this flood of maternal glucose, the fetus secretes abnormally high levels of insulin which greatly increases demand for oxygen which requires extra iron that the fetus can obtain only by taxing it on iron stores in the liver, muscles, heart, and brain.
How might the lower intelligence scores and memory abilities of children of diabetic mothers be caused by prenatal damage to the hippocampus?
Prenatal iron depletion interferes with growth of brain cells and their connections, permanently reducing the size and altering the structure of the hippocampus
What percentage of pregnancies in industrialized nations results and healthy newborn babies?
More than 90%
Pregnant mothers regard this as an extremely valuable source of information, second in importance only to their doctors
What changes and experiences help expectant parents come to view the baby as a reality?
A major turning point occurs when expectant parents have concrete proof that a fetus is developing inside the uterus, for instants an ultrasound image or sensing the fetuses movements for the first time
True or false: men and women who have had good relationships with their own parents are more likely to develop positive images of themselves as parents during pregnancy
What are three benefits of participating in special intervention programs for expectant mothers and fathers?
Couples feel better about themselves and their marital relationships, communicate more effectively, feel more competent as parents after the baby arrives, and adapt more easily when family problems arise
True or false: having a baby typically improves a troubled relationship
False, expecting a couples who are unhappy in their marriages and who have difficulty working out their differences continue to be distant, dissatisfied, and poor problem-solvers after childbirth