Flashcards in Chapter 3 Respiratory Deck (29):
Describe the flow of air in the lungs
Air enters the nasopharynx where it is filtered and moisturized, or through the mouth to the larynx from there it goes to the larynx and then to the trachea. From the trachea it goes to the bronchi, then to the bronchioles and then the alveoli
What part of the brain controls the process of respiration?
The medulla at the base of the brain.
What part of the body does the brain stimulate for respiration?
The muscles of the diaphragm
How does respiration work once the brain stimulates the diaphragm?
The diaphragm and the intercostal muscles contract.
During contraction- increase volume in chest cavity, decrease pressure w/in lungs forces air to move into lungs
Relaxation- decrease volume in chest cavity, air is forced out of lungs
Two thin layers of mucous membranes that protect and cushion the lungs
Outer layer that lines the inside of the chest wall
Inner layer that adheres to the lung
Why is it important to do chest films erect?
To look for air/fluid levels
Why is it better to do chest images PA instead of AP?
PA reduces magnification of the heart. It can also indicate appropriate heart size. Pathologies such as CHF can cause enlargement of the heart.
What size should the heart be?
No larger than the patients fist or should not take up more than half of the chest cavity
What is CT good for when looking at the respiratory system?
It is able to detect very small nodules in the lung, especially effective for diagnosing lung cancer at its earliest stage.
What is Nuc Med good for when looking at the respiratory system?
Lung scans use radioactive tracer, used to examine air flow and blood flow in the lungs. Good to look for pulmonary embolism.
Maintains an open airway and helps prevent suffocation. Flexible plastic tube is placed through the mouth, down trachea, to the lungs.
ET endotracheal tube
Where should the endotracheal tube sit?
5-7 cm above the carina
Catheter inserted into the subclavian vein or more peripheral vein in the upper extremity; useful for measurement of central venous pressure and provide a conduit for rapid infusion of fluid or chronic hyperalimentation.
CVP Central Venous Pressure Catheter
Where should the CVP catheter be found?
Where the brachiocephalics come together if near the jugular it’s too high.
What is a type of long term CVP catheter?
Process of talking or making sound
Catheter that consists of central channel for measuring pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and a 2nd, smaller channel connected to an inflatable balloon at a catheter tip
Can also be used to measure cardiac output
Pulmonary artery catheter
Method of choice for maintaining cardiac rhythm in patients with heart block or bradyarrythmias
Transvenous Cardiac Pacemaker
Where should the tip of the pacemaker be located?
Should be at the tip of the right ventricle
Central venous catheter most often used for the administration of chemotherapy or other meds, as well as withdrawal of blood for analysis
Device used to draw blood and give treatments, including HIV fluids, drugs, or blood transfusions.
Port is placed under the skin usually in the chest
Mechanical device that increases myocardial oxygen perfusion while at the same time increasing cardiac output
Intra-aortic balloon pump
What is considered normal cardiac output?
What modality is good for measuring cardiac output?
Nuc Med and ultrasound
Low level of oxygen in the blood
Excessive carbon dioxide in the bloodstream, typically caused by inadequate respiration