Chapter 3 Respiratory Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Chapter 3 Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Respiratory Deck (29):
1

Describe the flow of air in the lungs

Air enters the nasopharynx where it is filtered and moisturized, or through the mouth to the larynx from there it goes to the larynx and then to the trachea. From the trachea it goes to the bronchi, then to the bronchioles and then the alveoli

2

What part of the brain controls the process of respiration?

The medulla at the base of the brain.

3

What part of the body does the brain stimulate for respiration?

The muscles of the diaphragm

4

How does respiration work once the brain stimulates the diaphragm?

The diaphragm and the intercostal muscles contract.
During contraction- increase volume in chest cavity, decrease pressure w/in lungs forces air to move into lungs
Relaxation- decrease volume in chest cavity, air is forced out of lungs

5

Two thin layers of mucous membranes that protect and cushion the lungs

Pleura

6

Outer layer that lines the inside of the chest wall

Parietal pleura

7

Inner layer that adheres to the lung

Visceral pleura

8

Why is it important to do chest films erect?

To look for air/fluid levels

9

Why is it better to do chest images PA instead of AP?

PA reduces magnification of the heart. It can also indicate appropriate heart size. Pathologies such as CHF can cause enlargement of the heart.

10

What size should the heart be?

No larger than the patients fist or should not take up more than half of the chest cavity

11

What is CT good for when looking at the respiratory system?

It is able to detect very small nodules in the lung, especially effective for diagnosing lung cancer at its earliest stage.

12

What is Nuc Med good for when looking at the respiratory system?

Lung scans use radioactive tracer, used to examine air flow and blood flow in the lungs. Good to look for pulmonary embolism.

13

Maintains an open airway and helps prevent suffocation. Flexible plastic tube is placed through the mouth, down trachea, to the lungs.

ET endotracheal tube

14

Where should the endotracheal tube sit?

5-7 cm above the carina

15

Catheter inserted into the subclavian vein or more peripheral vein in the upper extremity; useful for measurement of central venous pressure and provide a conduit for rapid infusion of fluid or chronic hyperalimentation.

CVP Central Venous Pressure Catheter

16

Where should the CVP catheter be found?

Where the brachiocephalics come together if near the jugular it’s too high.

17

What is a type of long term CVP catheter?

PICC line

18

Process of talking or making sound

Phonation

19

Catheter that consists of central channel for measuring pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and a 2nd, smaller channel connected to an inflatable balloon at a catheter tip
Can also be used to measure cardiac output

Pulmonary artery catheter
Swanz-Ganz

20

Method of choice for maintaining cardiac rhythm in patients with heart block or bradyarrythmias

Transvenous Cardiac Pacemaker

21

Where should the tip of the pacemaker be located?

Should be at the tip of the right ventricle

22

Central venous catheter most often used for the administration of chemotherapy or other meds, as well as withdrawal of blood for analysis

Hickman

23

Device used to draw blood and give treatments, including HIV fluids, drugs, or blood transfusions.
Port is placed under the skin usually in the chest

Port-a-cath

24

Mechanical device that increases myocardial oxygen perfusion while at the same time increasing cardiac output

Intra-aortic balloon pump

25

What is considered normal cardiac output?

45-65

26

What modality is good for measuring cardiac output?

Nuc Med and ultrasound

27

Low level of oxygen in the blood

Hypoxemia

28

Excessive carbon dioxide in the bloodstream, typically caused by inadequate respiration

Hypercapnia

29

Normal breathing

Eupnea