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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Respiratory Deck (38)
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1

What tube is inserted into the subclavian vein or a more peripheral vein in the upper extremity, used to measure central venous pressure?

Central venous catheters

2

What consists of a central channel for measuring pulmonary capillary wedge pressure?

Swan Ganz Catheter

3

Method of choice for maintaining cardiac rhythm in patients with heart block or bradyarrhythmias?

Transvenous endocardiac pacing

4

What is a hereditary disease characterized by the secretion of excessively viscous mucus by all the exocrine glands?

Cystic fibrosis

5

What disease is known as idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome, is one of the most causes of respiratory distress in newborn?

Hyaline membrane disease

6

What is viral infection of young children that produces inflammatory obstructive swelling localized to the subglottic portion of the trachea?

Croup

7

Acute infections of the epiglottis, most commonly caused by Haemophilus influenzae in children, cause thickening of epiglottic tissue

epiglottitis

8

What is an inflammation of the lung that can be caused by a variety of organisms?

Pneumonia

9

What is most commonly produced by viral and mycoplasmal infections, involves the walls and lining of the alveoli and the interstitial supporting structures of the lung?

Interstitial pneumonia

10

Aspiration of esophageal or gastric contents into the lung can lead to the development of pneumonia?

aspiration pneumonia

11

What is caused by the sporelike microbe known as Bacillus anthracis?

Anthrax

12

What is a necrotic area of pulmonary parenchyma contraining purulent (puslike) material?

lung abscess

13

What is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, a rod shaped bacterium with a protective waxy coat that permits it to live outside the body for a long time?

tuberculosis

14

What means fungal infection of the lung?

Pulmonary Mycosis

15

Hyperinflation with diffuse increased interstitial markings
Interstitial pneumonia
Severe cases demonstrate focal areas of atelectasis?

Respiratory syncytial Virus

16

What is a chronic obstruction of the airways that leads to an ineffective exchange of respiratory gases and makes breathing difficult?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

17

What is a crippling and debilitating condition in which obstructive and destructive changes in small airways (the acini or terminal bronchioles) lead to a dramatic increase in the volume of air in the lungs?

Emphysema

18

What is a very common disease in which widespread narrowing of the airways develops because of an increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to various stimuli (allergens)?

Asthma

19

What refers to permanent abnormal dilation of one or more large bronchi as a result of destruction of the elastic and muscular components of the bronchial wall?

bronchiectasis

20

What is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown cause that is most often detected in young adults?

sarcoidosis

21

What is chronic interstitial inflammation that leads to pulmonary fibrosis and a diffuse nonspecific radiographic pattern of linear streaks and nodules throughout the lungs?

Pneumoconiosis

22

What is an inhalation of high concentrations of silicon dioxide (crystalline silica) primarily affects workers engaged in mining, foundry work, and sandblasting?

Silicosis

23

What may develop in improperly protected workers engaged in manufacturing asbestos products, in handling building materials, or in working with insulation composed of asbestos?

asbestosis

24

What are neoplasms of low-grade malignancy that constitute approximately 1% of all bronchial neoplasms?

bronchial adenoma

25

What Primary carcinoma of the lung arises from the mucosa of the bronchial tree?

bronchogenic carcinoma

26

what refers to a shower of bacteria that enter the pulmonary circulation and remain trapped within the lung?

septic embolism `

27

What is a potentially fatal condition, is by far the most common pathologic process involving the lungs of hospitalized patients?

Pulmonary Embolism

28

What is an abnormal vascular communication from a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein?

Pulmonary Arteriovenous fistula

29

What is refered to a condition in which there is diminished air within the lung associated with reduced lung volume?

Atelectasis

30

What describes a clinical picture of severe, unexpected, and life-threatening acute respiratory distress that develops in patients who have a variety of medical and surgical disorders but no major underlying lung disease?

Adult respiratory distress syndrome

31

Aspiration of solid foreign bodies into the tracheobronchial tree occurs almost exclusively in young children are?

intrabronchial foreign bodies

32

Air within the mediastinal space may appear spontaneously, or it may result from chest trauma, from perforation of the esophagus or tracheobronchial tree, or from the spread of air along fascial planes in the neck, peritoneal cavity, or retroperitoneal space is?

Mediastinal Emphysema (Pneumomediastinum)

33

What is caused by penetrating or blunt injuries that disrupt the lung and parietal pleura and force air into the tissues of the chest wall?

subcutaneous emphysema

34

What is the presence of air in the pleural cavity, results in a partial or complete collapse of the lung?

pneumothorax

35

What is the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space is a nonspecific finding that may be caused by a wide variety of pathologic processes?

pleural effusion

36

What refers to the presence of infected liquid or frank pus in the pleural space?

emphyema

37

What is an elevation of one or both leaves of the diaphragm can be caused by paralysis resulting from any process that interferes with the normal function of the phrenic nerve?

diaphragmatic paralysis

38

What is a rare congenital abnormality in which one hemidiaphragm (very rarely both) is poorly developed and too weak to permit the upward movement of abdominal contents into the thoracic cage?

eventration of the diaphragm