Chapter 3 Section 2 & 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Section 2 & 3 Deck (33):
1

cerebral cortex

outer layer of the brain. provides for better memory, more advanced social interactions, ability to experience emotions. bark-like, allows us to use language, acquire complex skills, create tools, and live in social groups

2

brain stem

oldest and innermost region of the brain. controls basic functions of life: breathing, attention, motor responses

3

medulla

base of brain stem, controls heart rate and breathing

4

pons

spherical shape above medulla, structure in brain stem that helps control the movements of the body, playing a particularly important role in balance and walking

5

reticular formation

long, narrow network of neurons running through medulla and pons. filters out some stimuli coming in and sends them along; also plays role in walking, eating, sexual activity and sleeping

6

thalamus

the egg-shaped structure above the brain stem that filters even more after the reticular formation, sending some incoming stimuli to higher brain. shuts off signals during sleep

7

cerebellum

two wrinkled ovals behind brain stem. coordinates voluntary movement. influenced by alcohol.

8

limbic system

a brain area, located between the brain stem and the two cerebral hemispheres, that governs emotions and memory. includes amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus

9

amygadala

consists of two almond-shard clusters and is primarily responsible for regulating our perceptions of and reactions to, aggression and fear

10

hypothalamus

a brain structure that contains a number of small areas that perform a variety of functions, including the important role of linking the nervous system to the endocrine via the pituitary gland

11

hippocampus

two horns that curve back from amygdala. for storing long-term memories.

12

corticicalization

folding of cerebral cortex, increasing surface area

13

glia

glial cells, surround and link to the neurons, protecting them and providing them with nutrients and absorbing unused neurotransmitters. myelin is an example

14

hemispheres

two main sections of brain, divided into four lobes each, each separated by folds known as fissures.

15

frontal lobe

frontmost lobe, behind forehead. responsible for thinking, planning, memory, and judgement

16

parietal lobe

behind frontal lobe, extends from middle to back of skull and is primarily responsible for processing information about touch.

17

occipital lobe

processes visual information, at very back of skull.

18

temporal lobe

between ears responsible for hearing and language`

19

contralateral control

brain is wired so that each hemispheres handles the opposite side of the bod

20

motor cortex

the part of the cortex that controls and executes movements of the body by sending signals to the cerebellum and the spinal cord

21

somatosensory cortex

an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skin's sensory receptors and movements of different body parts

22

visual cortex

the area located in the occipital lobe (very back of brain) that processes visual information

23

auditory cortex

responsible for hearing and language, within the temporal lobe.

24

association areas

rest of cortex. areas in which sensory and motor information is combined and associated with our stored knowledge

25

neuroplasticity

the brain's ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage

26

neurogenesis

the forming of new neurons.

27

brain laterization

the idea that the left and right hemispheres of the ons

28

corpus callosum

connects and supports communication between two hemispheres

29

lesion

damage to the brain. as a result of strokes, falls, auto accidents, gunshots. studying people with lesions lets you ID what part of brain does what by studying deficiencies. part of neuroimagaing

30

feature detectors

specific neurons in visual cortex that detect movement, lines and edges, and faces

31

EEG

a technique that records electrical activity produced by the brain's neurons through the use of electrodes that are placed around the research participant's head

32

fMRI

functional magnetic resonance imaging. type of brain scan that uses a magnetic field to create images of brain activity in each brain area.

33

TMS

transcranial magnetic stimulation. a procedure in which magnetic pulses are applied to the brain of living persons with the goal of temporarily and safely deactivating a small brain region.