Flashcards in Chapter 3: Settling the Northern Colonies (1619-1700) Deck (21)
What is Calvinism?
Dominant theological credo of the New England Puritans based on the teachings of John Calvin. Calvinists believed in predestination- that only "the elect" were destined for salvation.
What is predestination?
Calvinist doctrine that God has foreordained some people have to be saved and some to be damned. Though their fate was irreversible, Calvinists, particularly those who believed they were destined for salvation, sought to lead sanctified lives in order to demonstrate to others that they were in fact members of the "elect"
What is conversion?
An intense religious experience that confirmed an individual's place in the "elect", or "visible saints." Calvinists who experienced conversion were then expected to lead sanctified lives to demonstrate their salvation.
Who were the Puritans?
English Protestant reformers who sought to purify the Church of England of Catholic rituals and creed. Some of the most devout Puritans believed that only "visible saints" should be admitted to church membership.
Who were Separatists?
A small group of Puritans who sought to break away entirely from the Church of England; after initially settling in Holland, a number of English Separatists made their way to Plymouth Bay Massachusetts.
What was the Mayflower Compact?
Agreement to from a majoritarian government in Plymouth, signed aboard the Mayflower. Created a foundation for self-government in the colony.
What was the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
Established by non-separating Puritans, it soon grew to be the largest and most influential of the New England colonies.
What was the Great English migration?
Migration of 70000 refugees from England to the North American colonies, primarily New England and the Caribbean. The 20000 migrants who came to Massachusetts largely shared a common sense of purpose- to establish a model Christian settlement in the New World.
What was antinomianism?
the belief that the elect need not obey the law of either God or man; most notably espoused in the colonies by Anne Hutchinson.
What were the Fundamental Orders?
Drafted by settlers in the Connecticut River Valley, this document was the 1st "modern constitution" establishing a democratically controlled government. Key features of the document were borrowed for Connecticut's colonial charter, and later its state constitution.
What was the Pequot War?
A series of clashes between English settlers and Pequot Indians in the Connecticut River Valley. Ended in the slaughter of the Pequots by the Puritans and their Narragansett Indian allies.
What was King Philip's War?
A series of assaults by Metacom, King Philip, on English settlements in New England. The Attacks slowed the westward migration of English settlers for several decades.
What was the New England Confederation?
A weak union of the colonies in Massachusetts and Connecticut led by Puritans for the purpose of defense and organization; and early attempt at self-governing during the benign neglect of the English Civil War.
What was the English Civil War?
An armed conflict between royalists and parliamentarians, resulting in the victory of pro-parliament forces and the execution of Charles I.
What was the Dominion of New England?
Administrative union created by royal authority, incorporating all of New England, New York, and East and West Jersey. Placed under the rule of Sir Edmund Andros, who curbed popular assemblies, taxed residents without their consent, and strictly enforced Navigation Laws. Its collapse after the Glorious Revolution in England demonstrated colonial opposition to strict royal control.
What were the Navigation Laws?
A series of laws passed beginning in 1651 to regulate colonial shipping; the acts provided that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports and that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through England.
What was the Glorious (or Bloodless) Revolution?
A relatively peaceful overthrow of the unpopular catholic monarch, James II, who was replaced with Dutch-born William III and Mary II, daughter of James II. William and Mary accepted increased parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchical authority.
What was salutary neglect?
the unofficial policy of relaxed royal control of colonial trade and only weak enforcement of navigational laws. Lasted from the Glorious Revolution to the end of the French and Indian War in 1763.
What were patroonships?
Vast tracts of land along the Hudson River in New Netherlands granted to wealthy promoters in exchange for bringing 50 settlers to the property.
Who were Quakers?
A religious group known for their tolerance, emphasis on peace, and idealistic Indian policy, who settled heavily in Pennsylvania in the 17th and 18th centuries.