Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Sex Research Deck (56):
Facts or truths have enormous implications social, economic, and political. Why?
What is the implicit assumption?
Large % argues for normality
Small % argues for deviance
Implicit assumption that single truth exists, but answers may involve more than one truth
What are 5 reasons we ask/research questions about sex?
1. Gather information
2. Develop or support theory
3. Promote social norms
4. Inform policy/programs
5. Understand, predict, control
What drives research?
Public Interest and social values
What are examples of public interest and social values driving research?
1. The peer-review process to fund research
2. Peers are a select elite group often with political agenda
3. Research Choice, so agendas in making the choice and presentation of findings are political activities, not just neutral science
Who claimed that masturbation was the root of all sexual deviance and portrayed sexual behaviour as pathological?
19th Century Richard Von Krafft-Ebing
Who studied sexual norms in various cultures and emphasized variation in sexuality and influence of culture and society.
portrayed masturbation and same gender sex as non-pathological
Reported similarity in sexual desire and response among men and woman
Henry Havelock Ellis (1859-1939)
Who applied statistics to sex research instead of personal observation.
Made "Sexual Behaviour in the human Male" and "sexual behaviour in the human female"
Who focused on physiology of sexual response and treatment of sexual dysfunction
Used instruments to measures sexual response
Masters and Johnson 1950s
Who are probably the most influential sex researchers in the last century?
Maters and Johnson
A couple that watched people have sex and researched them. Collected a ton of data that is used a lot!
They did this in secrecy with support of university and local clergy, then moved it off campus to their own project. This was in a time when views on sex was just becoming more liberal. Book was published and took off
What is the Hite Report 1976
Report by Shere Hite that pushed back assumptions about sexuality and woman
Define random sampling
each member of the population has an equal change of being included in the sample
What are problems related to self-reports of sexual behaviour?
1. Problem of refusal (just refusing to participate)
2. Purposeful Distortion (intentionally distorting self reports)
3. Social desirability (Distorting by trying to be more socially acceptable)
4. Memory (difficult to remember facts)
5. Difficulty of estimation
incidence vs frequency?
So the incidence is the percentage of people (like % who masturbate) and frequency is how often they masturbate
What are 6 relevant issues to research design
1. Reliability (consistency of responses among researchers and between methods
2. Interview vs questionnaires
3. Self reports versus administered
4. Ethical issues
5. Speical populations
6. Informed Consent
What is the most basic definition of ethical research?
That the damage of the research to the people outweighs the benefits it will bring
Read slide befrore statistical concepts
Correlation is not ______
Correlation is not causation
What are 6 research biases?
3. SES (socioeconomic Status)
these will be on test
What are 7 questions for critical thinking?
1. Who is conducting?
2. What questions are being asked?
3. How is info gathered?
4. Who participates in the research?
5. What are the results used for?
6. Who is Funding Research
7. Who is transforming the information? (such as media, policy analysts, advocacy groups)
These 7 will be on test
What are the 4 different types of sex research techniques?
1. Whether it relies on self reporting or observation
2. whether large # of people survey or just case study
3. Whether in lab or field
4. whether sex behave occurs naturally, or is manipulated experimentally
What is probability sampling?
A method of sampling in research in which the member of the population has a known probility of being included in the sample
What is random sampling?
each member of pop has an equal chance of being included in sample
What is stratified random sampling?
pop is divided into groups and then random sampling occurs in each group
What is volunteer bias?
Bias in results of sex surveys that arises when some people refuse to participate, so that those who are in the sample are volunteers who may in some ways differ from those who refuse to participate
What is convenience sample?
sample chosen in a haphazard manner relative to population of interest, not random or probability sample
What is purposeful distortion?
Purposely giving false info in survey
What is social desirability?
Tendency to distort answers to a survey in direction perceived to be more acceptable
What are 5 ways inaccuracies may occur with self-reporting?
1. Purposeful distortion
3. Difficulties with estimates
4. Interpreting the question
5. Evidence on the reliability of self-reports
What is test-rarest reliability?
Method for testing whether self-reports are reliable or accurate. Participants are interviewed or given questionnaire and then interviewed second time to determine whether their answers are same both times
What is the computer assisted self interview method (CASI)
Respondent fills out questionnaires on a computer. Headphones and soundtrack reading the questions can be added for young children or poor readers
What are 4 ethical issues with sex research?
1. Free and informed consent
2. Protection from harm
4. Balancing harm and benefits
What is free and informed consent?
People have right to be informed before participating in experiment of what they will be asked to do in the research
What is the justice principle?
Ethical principle in research which holds that the risks of participation should be distributed fairly across groups in society as should the benefits
What is the harms-benefits analysis?
Weighing harms of the research (such as subject stress) against benefits of the research
Define the mean?
Average of scores calculated by adding the scores and dividing by number of people
define the median
The middle score
Define the mode
most frequent score
Define the incidence
Percentage of people giving a particular response
How often a person does something
What is a sampling critisicm with the Kinsey Report?
Well, there a few underrepresented samples such as jews, older people, roman catholics, racial minorities, and people in rural areas. Also he chose not to use probability, to decrease non-response
How accurate are the Kinsey Statistics?
Hard to say, some may be very accurate and others riddlesd with serious errors. The single most doubtful figure is the high incidence of homosexuality
What is the best sex survey of the general population of the US available today?
The NHSLS (the National Health and Social Life Survey)
What is the sexual behaviour in Britain study called?
The National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSAL)
What did Australian sex study find?
Age of first sex was declining
What was a statistic that was controversial in these surveys?
Rate of homosexual behaviour being too high or too low in the reports
What did the Canada Youth, Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS study find?
Many youth had begun sex intercourse by age 14
also education about sex health was lower than previous study in 1987
What does doing research with people in diverse ethnocultural communities in canada require?
More than just administering the same old surveys to samples of people from these groups.
Needs to be sensitive to issues such as ethnicity of interviewer, language used, and special sensitivity of some groups regarding some topics
What is content analysis?
Set of procedures used to make valid inferences about text
What is intercoder or interrater reliability?
In content analysis, correlation or percentage of agreement between two coders independently rating the same texts
What is a sampling problem with Masters and Johnson's "The physiology of sexual response"?
Well, they couldn't really have a totally random sample that was high because of hugely high refusal rate, much higher than in survey research. So this is unsolvable for this type of observational research
What is Snowball sampling?
Method of acquiring sample of people where current participants suggest names of future participants to be recruited
What is participant-observer technique?
Research method in which the scientist becomes part of the community to be studied and makes observations from inside the community
What is a correlation study?
Researcher does not manipulate variables, but studies naturally occurring relationships among variables (correlations)
What is causal inference?
Reaching the concussion that one factor actually causes or influences an outcome
What are three crucial methodological issues in sex research?
3. Ethical issues