Chapter 3 - Social, Moral, and Emotional Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Social, Moral, and Emotional Development Deck (46):
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Psychosocial Theory

A set of principles that relates social environment to psychological development.

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Psychosocial Crisis

According to Erikson, the set of critical issues that individuals must address as they pass through each of the eight life stages.

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Heteronomous Morality

In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which children think that rules are unchangeable and that breaking them leads automatically to punishment.

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Autonomous Morality

In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which a person understands that people make rules and that punishment is not automatic.

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Moral Dilemmas

In Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, hypothetical situations that require a person to consider values of right and wrong.

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Pre-conventional Level of Morality

Stages 1 and 2 in Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgments in their own interests.

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Conventional Level of Morality

Stages 3 & 4 in Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgments in consideration of others.

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Post-conventional Level of Morality

Stages 5 & 6 in Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgments in relation to abstract principles.

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Peers

People who are equal in age or status.

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Prosocial Behaviors

Actions that show respect and caring for others.

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Solitary Play

Play that occurs alone.

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Parallel Play

Play in which children engage in the same activity side by side, but with very little interaction or mutual influence.

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Associative Play

Play that is much like parallel play but with increased levels of interaction in the form of sharing, turn-taking, and general interest in what others are doing.

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Cooperative Play

Play in which children join together to achieve a common goal.

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Self-Concept

A person's perception of his or her own strengths, weaknesses, abilities, attitudes, and values.

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Self-esteem

The value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities, and behaviors.

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Social Comparison

The process of comparing oneself to others to gather information and to evaluate and judge one's abilities, attitudes, and conduct.

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Reflectivity

The tendency to analyze oneself and one's own thoughts.

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Foreclosure

An adolescent's premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices, rather than his or her own desires.

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Identity Diffusion

Inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self.

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Moratorium

Experimentation with occupational and ideological choices without definite commitment.

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Identity Achievement

A state of consolidation reflecting conscious, clear-cut decisions concerning occupation and ideology.

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Puberty

Developmental stage at which a person becomes capable of reproduction.

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Erikson's Stages of Personal and Social Development

Trust vs. Mistrust - Birth - 18 months
Autonomy vs. Doubt - 18 months - 3 years
Initiative vs. Guilt - 3-6 years
Industry vs. Inferiority - 6-12 years
Identity vs. Role Confusion - 12-18 years
Intimacy vs. Isolation - Young Adulthood
Generativity vs. Self-Absorption - Middle Adulthood
Integrity vs. Despair - Late Adulthood

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Readiness Training

Key concept in preschool education - students learn skills that will prepare them for formal instruction later (ex. how to follow directions, stick to a task, cooperate with others, display good manners, etc.)

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Developmentally Appropriate Practice

Instructions based on students' individual characteristics and needs, not their ages. Curriculum and instructions are responsive to individual differences in abilities and interests. Different levels of ability, development, and learning styles are expected, accepted, and used to design curriculum.

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Marie Montessori

Designed form of education where the goal is development of the individual. Programs focus on developing general intellectual skills rather than particular subject matter concepts. Emphasis on independent work under guidance of trained educatior.

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Peer Acceptance

Considered the most important aspect of peer relations in middle childhood.

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Cliques

A fairly small, intimate group that is defined by common interests, activities, and friends of its members.

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Affective Education

Education for emotional growth

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Infancy Stage Conflict

Trust vs. Mistrust

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Toddler Stage Conflict

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

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Early Childhood Stage Conflict

Initiative vs. Guilt

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Elementary and Middle School Years Conflict

Industry vs. Inferiority

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Adolescence Stage Conflict

Identity vs. Role Confusion

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Young Adult Stage Conflict

Intimacy vs. Isolation

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Middle Age Stage Conflict

Generativity vs. Stagnation

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Late Age Stage Conflict

Integrity vs. Despair

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Identity

The organization of the individual's drives, abilities, beliefs, and history into a consistent image of self. It involves deliberate choices and decisions, particularly about vocation, sexual orientation, and a "philosophy of life".

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Role Confusion

Threatens when the individual fails to integrate these aspects and choices, or if one feels unable to choose at all.

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1st Level of Friendship

Other children played with. Begin & end quickly based on "kindness or meanness"; no stable characteristics; moment-to-moment actions define friendship.

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2nd Level of Friendship

Willingness to help when help is needed (linked to concrete operational cognitive abilities).

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3rd Level of Friendship

Highest level of friend - people who share common interest and values (does not mean you agree with everything), faithfully keep one's most private relations a secret, and provide psychological support when necessary. Less tied to behaviors. Friendship is now a long-term proposition and usually can't be destroyed by one or seven incidents.

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Effects of Positive Self-Esteem

Good success in school
Favorable attitude towards school
Positive behavior in the classroom
Popular with other students

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Social Cognition

Conceptions and understanding of other people. Children are 8-12 before they understand that other people have distinct, separate identities and futures.

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Empathy

Ability to feel emotion as experienced by others.