Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Social, Moral, and Emotional Development Deck (46):
A set of principles that relates social environment to psychological development.
According to Erikson, the set of critical issues that individuals must address as they pass through each of the eight life stages.
In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which children think that rules are unchangeable and that breaking them leads automatically to punishment.
In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which a person understands that people make rules and that punishment is not automatic.
In Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, hypothetical situations that require a person to consider values of right and wrong.
Pre-conventional Level of Morality
Stages 1 and 2 in Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgments in their own interests.
Conventional Level of Morality
Stages 3 & 4 in Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgments in consideration of others.
Post-conventional Level of Morality
Stages 5 & 6 in Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgments in relation to abstract principles.
People who are equal in age or status.
Actions that show respect and caring for others.
Play that occurs alone.
Play in which children engage in the same activity side by side, but with very little interaction or mutual influence.
Play that is much like parallel play but with increased levels of interaction in the form of sharing, turn-taking, and general interest in what others are doing.
Play in which children join together to achieve a common goal.
A person's perception of his or her own strengths, weaknesses, abilities, attitudes, and values.
The value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities, and behaviors.
The process of comparing oneself to others to gather information and to evaluate and judge one's abilities, attitudes, and conduct.
The tendency to analyze oneself and one's own thoughts.
An adolescent's premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices, rather than his or her own desires.
Inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self.
Experimentation with occupational and ideological choices without definite commitment.
A state of consolidation reflecting conscious, clear-cut decisions concerning occupation and ideology.
Developmental stage at which a person becomes capable of reproduction.
Erikson's Stages of Personal and Social Development
Trust vs. Mistrust - Birth - 18 months
Autonomy vs. Doubt - 18 months - 3 years
Initiative vs. Guilt - 3-6 years
Industry vs. Inferiority - 6-12 years
Identity vs. Role Confusion - 12-18 years
Intimacy vs. Isolation - Young Adulthood
Generativity vs. Self-Absorption - Middle Adulthood
Integrity vs. Despair - Late Adulthood
Key concept in preschool education - students learn skills that will prepare them for formal instruction later (ex. how to follow directions, stick to a task, cooperate with others, display good manners, etc.)
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Instructions based on students' individual characteristics and needs, not their ages. Curriculum and instructions are responsive to individual differences in abilities and interests. Different levels of ability, development, and learning styles are expected, accepted, and used to design curriculum.
Designed form of education where the goal is development of the individual. Programs focus on developing general intellectual skills rather than particular subject matter concepts. Emphasis on independent work under guidance of trained educatior.
Considered the most important aspect of peer relations in middle childhood.
A fairly small, intimate group that is defined by common interests, activities, and friends of its members.
Education for emotional growth
Infancy Stage Conflict
Trust vs. Mistrust
Toddler Stage Conflict
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Early Childhood Stage Conflict
Initiative vs. Guilt
Elementary and Middle School Years Conflict
Industry vs. Inferiority
Adolescence Stage Conflict
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Young Adult Stage Conflict
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Age Stage Conflict
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Late Age Stage Conflict
Integrity vs. Despair
The organization of the individual's drives, abilities, beliefs, and history into a consistent image of self. It involves deliberate choices and decisions, particularly about vocation, sexual orientation, and a "philosophy of life".
Threatens when the individual fails to integrate these aspects and choices, or if one feels unable to choose at all.
1st Level of Friendship
Other children played with. Begin & end quickly based on "kindness or meanness"; no stable characteristics; moment-to-moment actions define friendship.
2nd Level of Friendship
Willingness to help when help is needed (linked to concrete operational cognitive abilities).
3rd Level of Friendship
Highest level of friend - people who share common interest and values (does not mean you agree with everything), faithfully keep one's most private relations a secret, and provide psychological support when necessary. Less tied to behaviors. Friendship is now a long-term proposition and usually can't be destroyed by one or seven incidents.
Effects of Positive Self-Esteem
Good success in school
Favorable attitude towards school
Positive behavior in the classroom
Popular with other students
Conceptions and understanding of other people. Children are 8-12 before they understand that other people have distinct, separate identities and futures.