CHAPTER 3 TEST Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CHAPTER 3 TEST Deck (42):
1

dendrites

bushy branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

2

parts of a motor neuron

cell body, dendrites, axon, neural impulse, terminal branches of axon, myelin sheath

3

a neural impulse will increase in speed if covered by a

myelin sheath

4

causes of multiple sclerosis

if the myelin sheath degenerates: communication to muscles slows, with eventual loss of muscle control

5

when is a neuron's reaction an all or none response

once action potential is released, the axon either fires or it doesn't

6

special junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted

synapses

7

endorphins

natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.

help explain good feelings such as the “runner’s high,” the painkilling effects of acupuncture, and the indifference to pain in some severely injured people. But once again, new knowledge led to new questions

8

what neurotransmitter's decline causes Alzheimer's

Acetylcholine (ACh)

9

antagonists

bind to receptors, effect is instead to block a neurotransmitter's functioning

10

nervous system

the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

11

axons

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

12

brain

key communicator for the CNS

13

pons

in brainstem and coordinates movements

14

provides link w/ nervous system and endocrine system

hypothalamus or pituitary gland??

15

controls voluntary movements

motor cortex

16

apply scenario involving direct stimulation of the motor cortex

????/

17

which lobe is most associated w/ schizophrenia

temporal

18

where are the association areas

all 4 lobes

19

purpose of the association areas

interpret, integrate, and act on information processed by the sensory areas (higher mental functions)

20

which brain region is involved in speech production

broca's area

21

aphasia

impairment of language caused by left hemisphre damage either to broca's or wernicke's area

22

describe how the brain processes and controls language

????

23

one brain area can take over functions of a damaged area

plasticity

24

new neurons formed in the brain

neurogenesis

25

what is cut for split brain patients

corpus callosum

26

which part of the brain processes an optical illusion

right hemisphere

27

which part of the brain processes language

wernicke's area; left hemisphere

28

describe a scenario that accounts for dual processing ability

?????

29

what type of scientists focus on nature v nurture 

behavior geneticists

30

DNA

a complex molecule containing the genetic info. that makes up the chromosomes

31

biochemical units that determine heredity

genes

32

environmental conditions cause genes to

survive / reproduce

33

info. contained in a gene is expressed as

DNA

34

genome

the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes

35

heritability

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied

36

genes can change based on conditions; this is called

heritability

37

this kind of scientist examines chromosomal differences

???????

38

natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generation

 

39

evolutionary theory

?????

40

evolutioinary psychologists

Critics argue that evolutionary psychologists start with an effect and work backward to an explanation, that the evolutionary perspective gives too little emphasis to social influences, and that the evolutionary viewpoint absolves people from taking responsibility for their sexual behavior

41

current psychology's understanding of nature/nurture

??????/

42

what psychological perspective most directly address nature/nurture

evolution