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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Test Deck (18):
1

Law of definite proportions

Law stating that chemical compounds contain the same elements in the same proportions by weight or mass

2

Law of multiple proportions

2 elements combine to form 2 or more compounds, the mass of one element that combines with the mass of the other is in the ratio of small whole numbers

3

Law of conservation of mass

Matter cannot be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction

4

What part of Daltons atomic theory is no longer believed to be true

- Atoms are identical in size, mass, and other proportions (not identical in mass - C-12, C-13, C-14)
- Atoms cannot be created, subdivided, nor destroyed - Can be subdivided (protons, electrons, neutrons)

5

5 parts of Daltons atomic theory

- all matter = composed of atoms
- Atoms of an element are are identical in size, mass, and other properties
- Atoms cannot be created, subdivided, nor destroyed
- Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to form chemical compounds
- In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged

6

JJ Thompson

- Proved the existence of the electron through cathode ray expierment

7

Robert Millikan

Discovered the charge of the electron

8

Ernest Rutherford, Hans Gieger, and Ernest Marsden

Nucleus is small compared to the rest of the atoms , and it is positively charged

9

How did the gold foil experiment work?

A lead box shot out positively charged alpha particles through a piece of gold foil. The particles could go through the screen and go straight, go through and change directions, or hit the screen and bounce back.

10

Democritus

Believed that everything was made up of atoms and Aristotle did not

11

Law of definite proportions (calculations)

Take percent composition of element (H) and divide it by total mass composition (HCl)

12

Law of multiple proportions

Divide all by the smallest number of grams of each element (should get whole number)

13

What is the standard for AMU?

C-12. One amu is 1/12of C-12s mass

14

Hyphen notation

K-39

15

What is a nuclide?

An atom defined by the the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus

16

Atomic number

The number of protons in each atom of that element

17

Isotope

When elements have the same number of protons, but different number of protons

18

Mass number

Total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope