Chapter 3 - The Chemical Building Blocks of Life Flashcards Preview

Principles of Biology I > Chapter 3 - The Chemical Building Blocks of Life > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 - The Chemical Building Blocks of Life Deck (49):
1

carbon

* Fundamental to life
* Bonds with C or other molecules
* Can form up to 4 covalent bonds
* Reduced C stores energy
* Can be bonded to functional groups with specific properties

2

hydrolysis

The breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water.
(Polymers broken down into monomers.)

3

dehydration synthesis

Formation of large molecules by the removal of water.
(Monomers joined to form polymers.)

4

denaturation (defn and causes)

* The change in the shape of a protein, usually causing loss of function, such as complete unfolding.
* Caused by pH, temperature, salt concentration

5

amino (structure and macromolecules found in)

* Functional group: one N single-bonded to two H in "bent" shape, on end of molecule
* Found in: proteins, nucleic acids

6

carboxyl (structure and macromolecules found in)

* Functional group: one C double-bonded to one O (above) and single-bonded to one OH (below) in "bent" shape, on end of molecule
* Found in: proteins, lipids

7

carbonyl (structure and macromolecules found in)

* Functional group: One C double-bonded to one O, in middle of molecule
* Found in: carbohydrates, nucleic acids

8

methyl (structure and macromolecules found in)

* Functional group: one C single-bonded to 3 H, on end/outside of molecule
* Found in: proteins

9

hydroxyl (structure and macromolecules found in)

* Functional group: one OH single-bonded to end of molecule
* Found in: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids

10

phosphate (structure and macromolecules found in)

* Functional group: one P double-bonded to one O and single-bonded to 3 more O in tetrahedryl(?) shape, on end of molecule
* Found in: nucleic acids

11

sulfhydryl (structure and macromolecules found in)

* Functional group: one S single-bonded to one H, on end of molecule
* Found in: proteins

12

amino acid

* Monomer that composes the polymers that are proteins.
* There are 20 different kinds.
* Joined by peptide bonds (covalent)
* Structure: a central C bonded to one amino group, one carboxyl group, one H, and an R group (which determines the unique character of the 20 different amino acids).

13

protein (defn and functions)

Polymers of amino acids. (shape and specific order of amino acid monomers determines the structure and function)
Functions:
* enzyme catalysts
* defense (anti-bodies)
* transport (iron in living things, bind O)
* support (can be structural, connective tissue, ligaments)
* motion (muscles contracting)
* regulation (turn on/off other processes)
* storage (of amino acids)

14

fatty acid

Long hydrocarbon chains that can be saturated, unsaturated, or polyunsaturated.

15

trigylceride

* A lipid.
* One glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
* Excellent energy storage, used by animals.
* Stores twice as much fat as carbohydrates.
* Saturated - solid at room temperature

16

enzyme

A protein catalyst - speeds up specific chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy.

17

peptide bond

Links amino acids together in proteins through dehydration synthesis (covalent).

18

nucleotide (defn and composition)

* Monomer of nucleic acids.
* Consists of a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), phosphate, and a nitrogenous base (either a purine or pyrimidine).

19

nucleic acid

* A polymer of nucleotide monomers, connected with phosphodiester bonds
* Primarily either RNA, or DNA.

20

DNA

* Deoxyribonucleic acid
* double-stranded in a double helix, connected by H bonds.
* Nitrogenous bases consist of adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine.
* Mostly for information storage (built up). Read to build proteins. Also, genetic information stored in the sequence of nucleotides.

21

RNA

* Ribonucleic acid, single-stranded.
* Nitrogenous bases consist of adenine, guanine, uracil, and cytosine.
* Mostly for info retrieval (broken down). Reads DNA for protein construction (directs their synthesis) and genetic information.

22

lipid

* Fats (triglycerides) and phospholipids
* Hydrophobic (caused by high proportion of C-H bonds)
* symmetrical

23

phospholipid (defn and composition)

* Basis of biological membranes, with a polar "head" and non-polar "tails".
* Composed of
- 1 glycerol
- 2 fatty acids
- a phosphate group

24

saturation

In fats, the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible are bonded to internal carbons.

25

carbohydrate

* Molecules with a 1:2:1 ratio of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
* Good energy storage molecules (C-H bonds hold lots of energy)
* Ex: sugars, starch, glucose

26

monosaccharide

* A single 6-carbon sugar
* Very important in energy storage
* Ex: glucose, fructose

27

disaccharide

* 2 monosaccharides linked together (by dehydration synthesis). Used for sugar transport or energy storage.
* Ex: sucrose, lactose

28

polysaccharide

* Long chains of sugars, used for energy storage.
* Plant form is starch; animal form is glycogen.
* Used for structural support; plants use cellulose, animals use chitin.

29

fructose

A structural isomer of glucose (same molecular formula). The "fruit" sugar.

30

sucrose

A disaccharide of one glucose and one fructose. (table sugar) The form most plants use to transport glucose.

31

maltose

A disaccharide, used in grain for glucose storage.

32

starch

A polymer of glucose monosaccharides for storage, such as in chloroplasts.

33

cellulose

A polymer of glucose monosaccharides. Substance of cell walls in plants.

34

glycogen

A polymer of glucose monosaccharides for energy storage in animals. Stored in a branching structure (like a bush) to quickly store or release sugar molecules.

35

chitin

A polymer of a version of glucose (N-acetylglucosamine). Substance found in arthropods (like lobster shells) and fungi cell walls.

36

primary structure

Amino acid sequence in proteins. Backbone is always N-C-C repeating.

37

secondary structure

Protein structure when you add H bonding to a primary structure (alpha helix or beta pleated sheet).

38

tertiary structure

Final 3D shape of a protein with regions of different secondary structures. Shape determines its activity (proteins need a tertiary structure in order to function)

39

quaternary structure

The final structure of a protein, when multiple polypeptides are involved in tertiary structure.

40

alpha helix

Coiled shape of a protein in secondary structure, bonded in shape by H bonds.

41

beta pleated sheet

Bend-and-folded shape of a protein in secondary structure, bonded in shape by H bonds.

42

adenine

Purine type nitrogenous base element in a nucleotide. Found in both DNA and RNA.

43

guanine

Purine type nitrogenous base element in a nucleotide. Found in both DNA and RNA.

44

cytosine

Pyrimidine type nitrogenous base element in a nucleotide. Found in both DNA and RNA.

45

uracil

Pyrimidine type nitrogenous base element in a nucleotide. Found only in RNA.

46

thymine

Pyrimidine type nitrogenous base element in a nucleotide. Found only in DNA.

47

monomer

The smallest unit of a polymer.

48

polymer

A molecule composed of many similar or identical molecular subunits (monomers).

49

isomer

One of a group of molecules identical in atomic composition but differing in structural arrangement; for example, glucose and fructose.