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Flashcards in Chapter 33 Infection Control Deck (12):

Infection Control

Good health depends in part on a safe environment.
•Practices that control or prevent transmission of infection help create an environment that protects patients and health care workers.
•Patients are at risk because they often have lower resistance and increased exposure to infectious microorganisms and because they sometimes undergo invasive procedures.


What are Microorganisms

bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa


What is the meaning of Reservoir

Humans, plants, animals or the general environment

A reservoir is a place where a pathogen can survive but may or may not multiply.


What are Pathogens require a reservoir that provides ?

Pathogens require a reservoir that provides all of the following:
–Oxygen (or no oxygen)
–Appropriate temperature and pH


Portal of exit from reservoir

The path by which the pathogen leaves the reservoir
–Body openings (mouth, nose, rectum, vagina, urethra, ostomies)
–Breaks in skin (scrape, cut, or other wound)
–Breaks in mucous membranes (skin in mouth, eyes, nose, vagina, rectum)
–Pathogens carried through portals by blood, body fluids, excretions, and secretions


Method of transmission

Direct Contact
–Indirect Contact
–Droplet Transmission
–Airborne Transmission
–Vehicle Transmission
–Vectorborne Transmission


Portal of Entry

Microorganisms can enter the body through the same routes they leave


Susceptible Host

any person who is at risk of infection
–Compromised host - a person at increased risk
•Degree of resistance/susceptibility to a pathogen
•Resistance increased by immunizations and actual contracting of the disease


Infectious Process

Severity of infection depends on
–Extent: localized or systemic
–Pathogenicity of the microorganism
–Host susceptibility


Course of Infection by Stage

Incubation period
•Prodromal stage
•Illness stage


Defences Against Infection

Normal flora
•Body system defences – Table 33-3


Hand Hygiene