Chapter 34 Animal Nutrition and Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 34 Animal Nutrition and Digestive System Deck (18):
1

hindgut fermenters

monogastric herbivores, animals with a simple, single-chambered stomach. Cellulose is digested with the aid of symbiotic bacteria

2

foregut fermenter

employed by ruminants

form of digestion that occurs in the foregut of some animals.

3

pseudo-ruminant

mammals with a three-chambered stomach (ruminants have a four-chambered stomach).[1] Camels and hippopotami are examples of pseudoruminants.[2]

4

ruminant

mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion

Rumen - process mechanically and exposed to bacteria than can break down cellulose.
Reticulum allows the animal to regurgitate and reprocess particulate matter.
Omasum is for mechanical processing and then the mass is finally passed to the true stomach.
Abomassum is where the digestive enzyme lysozyme breaks down the bacteria to release nutrients

5

Gizzard in birds

muscular chamber that uses ingested pebbles to pulverize food

6

Crop expanded in birds

muscular pouch near the throat and used to store food

7

birds

have no teeth

8

Digestive steps of food

Mouth (saliva, amylase)
teeth
Esophagus (Peristaltic movement)
Stomach (HCl, intrinsic factors and pepsinogen)
Small Intestines (Duodenum, jejunum and ileum)
Large intestine (colon)

9

Microvilli function

increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.

10

Villi function

the villi and the microvilli increase intestinal absorptive surface area approximately 30-fold and 600-fold, respectively, providing exceptionally efficient absorption of nutrients in the lumen

11

the function of bile from the gallbladder

Stores and concentrates bile
Arrival of fatty food in the duodenum triggers a neural and endocrine reflex that stimulates the gallbladder to contract, causing bile to be transported through the common bile duct and injected into the duodenum

12

function of the liver.

Chemically modifies the substances absorbed from the digestive tract before they reach the rest of the body
Ingested alcohol and other drugs are taken into liver cells and metabolized
Removes toxins, pesticides, and carcinogens, converting them to less toxic forms
Regulates levels of steroid hormones
Produces most proteins found in plasma

13

etc

All mammals rely on intestinal bacteria to synthesize vitamin K, which is required for blood clotting
Birds, which lack these bacteria, must consume the required quantities of vitamin K in their diet

14

Essential versus non-essential nutrients.

Essential we can’t manufacture and need to consume non-essential we need to manufacture.

15

Birds

no teeth
break up food in two chambered stomach
gizzard

16

carnivores

pointed teeth that lack flat grinding surfaces

17

herbivores

large flat teeth suited for grinding cellulose cell walls of plant tissues

18

humans

carnivore like teeth in front and herbivore like teeth in back

Inside the mouth, the tongue mixes food with saliva
Moistens and lubricates the food
Contains salivary amylase, which initiates the breakdown of starch
Salivation is controlled by the nervous system
Tasting, smelling, and even thinking or talking about food stimulate increased salivation

Swallowing
Starts as voluntary action
Continued under involuntary control
When food is ready to be swallowed, the tongue moves it to the back of the mouth
Soft palate seals off nasal cavity
Elevation of the larynx (voice box) pushes the glottis against the epiglottis
Keeps food out of respiratory tract