Flashcards in Chapter 34 Animal Nutrition and Digestive System Deck (18):
monogastric herbivores, animals with a simple, single-chambered stomach. Cellulose is digested with the aid of symbiotic bacteria
employed by ruminants
form of digestion that occurs in the foregut of some animals.
mammals with a three-chambered stomach (ruminants have a four-chambered stomach). Camels and hippopotami are examples of pseudoruminants.
mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion
Rumen - process mechanically and exposed to bacteria than can break down cellulose.
Reticulum allows the animal to regurgitate and reprocess particulate matter.
Omasum is for mechanical processing and then the mass is finally passed to the true stomach.
Abomassum is where the digestive enzyme lysozyme breaks down the bacteria to release nutrients
Gizzard in birds
muscular chamber that uses ingested pebbles to pulverize food
Crop expanded in birds
muscular pouch near the throat and used to store food
have no teeth
Digestive steps of food
Mouth (saliva, amylase)
Esophagus (Peristaltic movement)
Stomach (HCl, intrinsic factors and pepsinogen)
Small Intestines (Duodenum, jejunum and ileum)
Large intestine (colon)
increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.
the villi and the microvilli increase intestinal absorptive surface area approximately 30-fold and 600-fold, respectively, providing exceptionally efficient absorption of nutrients in the lumen
the function of bile from the gallbladder
Stores and concentrates bile
Arrival of fatty food in the duodenum triggers a neural and endocrine reflex that stimulates the gallbladder to contract, causing bile to be transported through the common bile duct and injected into the duodenum
function of the liver.
Chemically modifies the substances absorbed from the digestive tract before they reach the rest of the body
Ingested alcohol and other drugs are taken into liver cells and metabolized
Removes toxins, pesticides, and carcinogens, converting them to less toxic forms
Regulates levels of steroid hormones
Produces most proteins found in plasma
All mammals rely on intestinal bacteria to synthesize vitamin K, which is required for blood clotting
Birds, which lack these bacteria, must consume the required quantities of vitamin K in their diet
Essential versus non-essential nutrients.
Essential we can’t manufacture and need to consume non-essential we need to manufacture.
break up food in two chambered stomach
pointed teeth that lack flat grinding surfaces
large flat teeth suited for grinding cellulose cell walls of plant tissues