Chapter 34 - Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War, 1933-1941 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 34 - Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War, 1933-1941 Deck (39)
1

London Economic Conference

A 60 nation economic conference that organized to stabilize international currency rates. FDR's decision to revoke American participation contributed to a deepening world economic crisis. Strengthend Nationalism.

2

Tydings-McDuffie Act

Providing for the independence of the Philippines by 1946

3

Good Neighbor Policy

FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region.

4

Cordell Hull

Allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba and gave the United States control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.

5

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act

designed to lift American export trade from the depression, aimed at relief and recovery, activated the low-tariff policies of the New Dealers, provided that the the other country involved was willing to respond with similar reductions

6

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party

7

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943).

8

Adolf Hitler

(1889-1945) This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces. German Nazi dictator during World War II.

9

Fascism

style of government that emphasizes the leader and the whole rather than individual desire

10

Neutrality Acts

stated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect: no American could legally sail on a belligerent ship or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent.

11

Francisco Franco

Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (1892-1975)

12

Spanish Civil War

In 1936 the army revolted and civil war began- between the Rebels and Loyalists. Republicans were backed by most ordinary Spaniards and the Soviet Union. Rebels were backed by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This ended in 1939 with a victory for the Rebels.

13

Quarantine Speech

An important speech delivered by Franklin Roosevelt in which he called for "positive endeavors" to "quarantine" land-hungry dictators, presumably through economic embargos.

14

Rhineland Invasion

When Hitler marched into the demilitarized German Rhineland while France and Britain looked on in indecision.

15

Sudetenland

a region of western Czechoslovakia in which Hither wanted and soon gained; large German-speaking population

16

Munich Conference

European diplomatic conference in 1938 where Britain and France conceded to Hitler's demands for Czechoslovakia

17

Appeasement

Term for British-French policy of attempting to prevent war by granting German demands

18

Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

pact between Russia and Soviet, pledged neutrality by either party if the other were attacked by a third party.

19

Cash and Carry

policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.

20

Phony War

the months following the collapse of Poland, while France and Britain marked time.

21

Blitzkrieg

"Lightning war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939

22

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.

23

Anti-Semitism

Prejudice against Jews

24

Albert Einstein

German-born scientist who encourage FDR and America to build the first atomic bomb

25

American Jewish Committee

1914 - formed as organizations representing different segments of the American Jewish community pool their funds and cooperate to apportion and send money and supplies abroad for Jewish war relief. American Jews felt guilty, especially Jews who left family behind in Europe during the war (WWI) so they feel the need to send money to help as much as they can.

26

Father Coughlin

the Catholic priest from Michigan Whose anti-New Deal harangues in the 1930's became so anti- Semitic, fascist, and demagogic that he was silenced by his superiors

27

American Jewish Congress

il rights organization to defend the rights of minorities in the US, and to defend and support Israel.

28

Battle of Britain

an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance

29

Royal Air Force

The air force of Britain

30

Fortress America

isolationist view of America as defense only

31

America First

A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh was its most effective speaker.

32

Charles Lindbergh

outspoken advocate of isolationism, felt America should not be involved with the war. However, he supported the war effort after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

33

Destroyer Deal

1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.

34

Wendell Wilke

Dynamic dark horse Republican presidential nominee who attacked FDR on domestic policy. Won the republican convention but lost the election

35

Lend-Lease

law that made the US the "arsenal for democracy" by providing supposedly temporary military material assistance to GB

36

Atlantic Charter

World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live

37

Dutch East Indies

if U.S. oil embargo did end, Japan would be forced to extend its conquest by taking the oil resources of the Dutch East Indies.
Japan believed quick action necessary due to limited oil supplies

38

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941

39

December 7 1941

Japanese bombers attacked Pearl Harbor, killing 2,348 people. Congress declares war

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