Chapter 35 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 35 Deck (34):
1

pathogens

agents that cause disease

2

immune system limits

infections

3

all animals have

innate immunity

4

innate immunity

present before any exposure to pathogens

effective from birth

5

vertebrates also have

adaptive immunity

6

adaptive immunity

develops after exposure to agents

involves a very specific response

7

innate defense includes

barrier defense

phagocytic cells

antimicrobial proteins

natural killer cells

8

barrier defenses

includes skin and mucous membranes and body fluids (tears, saliva)

makes barrier and can prevent growth of many bacteria

9

phagocytosis

ingestion and breakdown of foreign substances including bacteria

10

neutrophils

circulate in the blood and are attracted by signals from infected tissues

11

macrophages

found throughout the body

12

interferons

interfere with viral reproduction

13

complement system

consists of protein that are activated by substances on microbe surfaces

14

t cells

lymphocytes that mature in the thymus above the heart

15

b cells

lymphocytes that mature in bone marrow

16

lymphocytes

part of immune system,

17

antigens

substances that can elicit a response from a b or t cell

18

antigen receptor

where a b or t cell binds to an antigen

19

epitope

part of the antigen that binds to the antigen receptor

20

order from largest to smallest:
bacteria
epitope
antigen

bacteria
antigen
epitope

21

humoral immune response

b cells and their antibodies help neutralize pathogens in the blood and lymph

22

antibody or immunoglobulin

proteins that help fight infection

23

cell mediated immune response

specialized cells

24

major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

molecules are host proteins that display the antigen fragments on cell surface

25

antigen presentation

MHC transports the antigen fragments to the cell surface

26

cytotoxic t cells

destroys infected cells

27

helper cells

activate b cells

28

what do t cells bind to

antigen presenting cells

29

clonal selection

activated b or t cells produce clones of themselves (cell divisions)

30

what are the 2 types of clones in clonal selection

1)
2)

31

primary immune response

first exposure to specific antigen

32

what happens in the primary immune response

selected b and t cells give rise to their effector and memory cells

33

secondary immune response

memory cells have faster stronger and longer response

34

immunological memory lasts.....

many decades