Chapter 37 The experience of loss, death, & grief Flashcards Preview

Introduction to nursing > Chapter 37 The experience of loss, death, & grief > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 37 The experience of loss, death, & grief Deck (10):

How one grieves depends on?

Cultural norms, belief systems, support systems, & personal faith


A maturational loss is a?

Form of necessary loss and includes all normally expected life changes across the life span
-associated with normal life transitions & they help people develop coping skills to use when they experience unplanned, unwanted, or unexpected loss


Sudden, unpredictable external events bring about?

Situational loss
-person in car accident sustains injury with physical changes that make it impossible to return to work/school, leading to loss of function, income, life goals, & self-esteem


Actual loss vs perceived loss

Actual loss- occurs when a person can no longer feel, hear, see, or know a person or object (loss of body part, death of family, loss of job)
Perceived loss- uniquely defined by the person experiencing the loss & is less obvious to other people (rejection by a friend that creates loss of confidence or changes their status in social group). How the individual interprets the meaning of the perceived loss affects the intensity of the grief response.
-perceived losses are easy to overlook but are just as painful as actual losses


Mourning is

The outward, social expressions of grief and the behavior associated with loss. Most mourning rituals are culturally influenced, learned behaviors.
-Example: The jewish mourning ritual of Shivah is a time period when normal life activities come to a stop. Those mourning welcome friends & family into the home as a way of honoring the dead and receive support during the mourning period


Define bereavement

Encompasses both grief and mourning and includes the emotional responses & outward behaviors of a person experiencing loss
-should be encouraged to talk about loss & reassured that the feelings are normal and that major decisions should be postponed


Normal (uncomplicated) grief

Complex, emotional, cognitive, social, physical, behavioral, & spiritual responses to loss & death
- disbelief, yearning,anger, depression
-helpful coping mechanisms include: hardiness & resilience, a personal sense of control, & the ability to make sense of and identify positive possibilities after a loss


Disenfranchised grief

People experience this grief when their relationship to the deceased is not socially sanctioned, cannot be shared openly, or seems of lesser significance
-examples: death of former spouse, married lover, incarcerated person or terminated pregnancy


Ambiguous loss

-uncertainty, a type of disenfranchised grief, can occur when the lost person is physically present but not psychologically available as in dementia or brain injury, other times it could be from a kidnapping, prisoner of war, or no body found


Complicated grief

A person has a prolonged or significantly difficult time moving forward after a loss.
-4 different types:
1) Chronic grief: normal grief response, extends for longer period of time, years-decades on intense grieving
2) Exaggerated grief: self destruction or maladaptive behavior, obsessions, or psychiatric disorders. Suicide risk
3) Delayed grief: unusually delayed or postponed because loss is so overwhelming. Frequently triggered by a second loss, sometimes not as significant as first
4) Masked grief: Sometimes a grieving person behaves in ways that interfere with normal functioning but is unaware that the disruptive behavior is a result of the loss & ineffective grief resolution