Chapter 38 - Agents to Control Blood Glucose Levels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 38 - Agents to Control Blood Glucose Levels Deck (19):
1

Insulin (I&A)

Treatment of...
1. Type 1 &2 Diabetes
2. Short term treatment of type 2 diabetes during periods of stress
3. Diabetic ketoacidosis
4. Hyperkalemia
5. Marked insulin resistance.

A: Replacement of endogenous insulin.

2

Insulin (I&A)

Treatment of...
1. Type 1 &2 Diabetes
2. Short term treatment of type 2 diabetes during periods of stress
3. Diabetic ketoacidosis
4. Hyperkalemia
5. Marked insulin resistance.

A: Replacement of endogenous insulin.

3

Insulin (AE CI DD)

AE: Hypoglycemia
Ketoacidosis

CI: none

DD: any drug that decreases glucose levels (beta blockers, alcohol)

4

Regular Insulin Onset Time

30-60 min

5

Lispro (Humalog) OT

-15min

6

Aspart (Novolog) OT

10-20min

7

Glulisine (Apidra) OT

2-5 min

8

Aspart (Novolog) OT

10-20min

9

Glargine (Lantus) OT

60-70 min

10

Glulisine (Apidra) OT

2-5 min

11

Chlorpropamide (I&A)

First gen sulfonylurea
I: Adjunct to diet and exercise to lower blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes
A: Stimulates the release of insulin from functioning cells in the pancreas; may improve the binding of insulin to insulin receptor sites or increase the number of insulin receptor sites

12

Chlorpropamide (AE)

Hypoglycemia, GI upset, Anorexia

13

Chlorpropamide
Glyburide
(CI&DD)

CI: Diabetes complicated by fever, severe infection, severe trauma, surgery
PT with type 1 diabetes

DD: Any drug that acidifies the urine because excretion decreased
Beta blockers
Herbal therapies
alcohol

14

Glyburide (I&A)

I: Adjunct to diet and exercise in mgmt of type 2 diabetes, with metformin or insulin for stabilization of diabetic patients

A: Stimulates insulin release from functioning beta cells in the pancreas; may improve insulin binding to insulin receptor sites or increase # of sites

15

Metformin (I)

Adj. to diet and exercise for the treatment of type 2 diabetics older than 10 years of age;
XR form for PT older than 17;
polycystic ovary syndrome

16

Metformin (A)

May increase the peripheral use of glucose,
increase production of insulin, decrease hepatic glucose production, and alter intestinal absorption of glucose

17

Metformin (AE)

Hypoglycemia
Lactic acidosis
Heartburn

CI & DD same as sulfonylureas

18

Glucagon (I&A)

glucose elevating agent
I: Counteracts severe hypoglycemic reactions in patients treated with insulin.
A: Accelerates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver, causing an increase in blood glucose levels.

19

Glucagon (AE & DD)

Hypokalemia with OD
HTN & HOTN

DD: Oral anticoags