Flashcards in CHAPTER 38: MORE WATER MAKES CHEWIER BREAD Deck (73):
In many cases, the ingredient list of bread contains what?
Flour, water, yeast and salt.
Is yeast a living organism?
What is yeast's function in bread?
Consume sugars and starches present in the flour and then convert them into carbon dioxide and alcohol.
What does yeast gives to a loaf of bread after devouring it's sugar and starches (fermentation)?
Lift and flavor.
Two most common forms of yeast.
Active dry and instant.
Are active dry and instant yeast processed differently? Explain.
Yes, active dry yeast is dried at high temperatures, which kills more of the exterior yeast cells (this is why it requires an initial activation in warm water), whereas instant, or rapid-rise, yeast is dried at more gentle temperatures so it can be added directly to the ingredients.
Will substituting equal amounts of instant yeast for active dry produce similar results?
What complex substance is made mostly of starch and lesser amounts of protein?
What two ingredients provide the structure and texture for breads of all kinds?
Water and flour.
Wheat proteins in flour are unmoving and lifeless when dry but begin to change shape when they come in contact with water; what is this called?
A process called hydration.
What happens to protein molecules during hydration?
The individual protein molecules, which consist of the loosely coiled gluten in and the more tightly wound gliadin, begin to link up and form long, elastic chains called gluten - the strands of gluten combine to form a membrane-like network.
What does the network of gluten do to starches and gas bubbles?
It engulfs swollen starch granules and gas bubbles, stretching as the dough rises and then bakes, giving the finished loaf a lot of structure and chew.
What is the relationship between flour and water in your bread?
The more water in a dough, the stronger and more extensible the gluten strands.
Why is adding enough water important?
If gluten strands are strong and extensible, they can support the starch granules and gas bubbles that hydrate and swell as the dough rises and bakes, giving you airier bread with good chew.
What happens to what in dough during baking? What does extra or too little water do (besides gluten)?
The water turns to steam, creating hollow pockets as moisture rushes to escape. Extra water also creates a looser dough, which allows the steam bubbles to expand more easily.In a drier dough, gas bubbles have a harder time forming and are more likely to collapse.
What is key to creating an open, airy crumb?
Getting the gas bubbles to hold their shape until the dough has risen and set.
How to imagine protein strands and starch granules.
A ball surround by many rubber bands.
TEST KITCHEN: DIFFERENCES IN BREAD MADE WITH VARYING QUANTITIES OF WATER: 50, 60, 75 AND 80%.
50% featured a tight, fine crumb with small air pockets. 80% had large, irregular holes with a loose, open crumb; it baked up very flat and wide. 60 and 75 showed significant differences but the extremes were most illustrative - flavor of each was identical since all other ingredients were the same.
What happens with too little water in bread?
A strong gluten network won't form, and gas bubbles created within the dough cannot hold and rise, making a finished loaf with too tight a crumb.
What happens when too much water is added?
It can dilute and weaken the gluten, likewise hindering breads ability to rise.
What is a typical hydration ratio for bread?
Typical hydration percentage for average pizza dough.
What is autolyse?
An essential dough process. It refers to a period of rest after the initial mixing of flour and water, a rest period that occurs sequentially before the addition of yeast and other ingredients. This rest period allows for better absorption of water and helps the gluten and starches to align. Breads made with autolysed dough are easier to shape and have more volume and improved structure.
Does autylose cut down kneading time drastically?
When resting pizza dough, how far should you press it down?
Until you feel it resisting.
What does resting the pizza dough do for gluten?
Allows the large gluten molecules to relax (like straightening curly hair) and stretch more easily.
Why should you use a baking stone for pizza?
It supplies a steady, dry, intense heat necessary to make pizzas with crisp, cracker-like crusts.
Baking stones are also called what?
What are ovens made more pizza usually lined with?
Is an oven's temperature constant? What does a pizza stone do for an ovens temperature fluctuations?
No, electric and gas ovens are furnished with thermostats that switch on and off to maintain the oven's internal temp - opening and closing also causes fluctuations. Preheating with a baking stone for an hour evens out the heat and the stone's ability to absorb, retain and radiate heat, insulating it from major temperature swings (just add mass).
Baking stones for home use are usually made of what?
Terra cotta or clay.
What does terra cotta mean in Italian?
Is terra cotta a type of earthenware?
Is earthenware a common ceramic?
What method do professional bakers rely on to quantify water to flour ratio?
"Baker's percentage," which presents the quantity of each ingredient as a % by weight of the amount of flour, which is always set at 100%.
Typical hydration of sandwich bread.
More water generally means a more ______ crumb.
Explain 60% hydration in a baker's %.
The weight of the liquid is 60% the weight of the flour.
Typical hydration of ciabatta.
Hydration of 10oz water and 15oz flour.
10/15 x 100 = 67 hydration level.
Baker's %: pizza bianca.
Baker's %: whole-wheat sandwich bread.
Baker's %: rosemary Focaccia.
Baker's %: rustic dinner rolls.
Baker's %: Almost no-knead bread.
Baker's %: olive-rosemary bread.
Baker's %: New York style thin crust pizza.
Substituting active dry yeast for instant.
Use 25% more
Substituting instant for active dry.
Use 25% less.
What type of yeast should be placed in 110ºF water for 5 minutes?
Active dry yeast
Fermentation of active dry yeast slows at water temp?
All yeast cells will die at what temp?
Do you need to soak instant yeast in warm water?
What is your cast-iron dutch oven covered with?
Any smooth glossy coating that resembles ceramic glaze.
Are all knobs on Dutch oven lids safe at 500ºF?
No, check it first.
Standard sandwich breads hover between what hydration %?
60 - 75%
Could you put vinegar and beer in bread? Explain.
Bottled vinegars are generally %5 acetic acid--the same acid produced by bacteria during dough fermentation, when yeast produces alcohol, carbon dioxide, and sulfur compounds. These three elements are present together in another location--a bottle of beer.
Why would you choose lager over other types of beer for bread? Explain.
Non lager beers undergo a process called "top fermentation," whereby yeast floats to the top of the wort (mashed grain in hot water), which is exposed to oxygen and kept warm. Oxygen and warmth persuade yeast to produce spicy, astringent flavor compounds called phenols and fruity, floral compounds called esters that are desirable in beer but not breads. Lager undergo "bottom fermentation," where yeast is kept submerged in the low-oxygen environment at the bottom of the wort at colder temperatures, which causes yeast to produce fewer phenols and esters, but more sulfur compounds, so the breadier yeast and sulfur flavors come forward.
Phenolic black knobs are a problem for what lids?
Le Creuset and Tramontina suggest you don't use their equipment in 500ºF ovens - get an all-metal drawer knob from hardware store.
Do breads like a humid oven?
Yes, steam is the key to a nice, crisp crust.
Do dutch ovens hold steam well for bread?
What transfers heat more efficiently, moist or dry air?
What does steam do to the air pockets in bread?
Moist air conduct heat more rapidly, causing air bubbles inside to expand much faster, leading to a more open crumb structure.
What does steam do as it condenses on the surface of baked bread?
It keeps crust soft, allowing the bread to continue expanding until the crust dries; a dry crust is much harder to expand.
What does steam do to starches?
Causes the starches to form a thin sheath that eventually dries out, giving the finished loaf a shiny crust that stays crisp.
Once a breads crust dries and and gets very hot, what happens?
Sugar molecules caramelize and react with proteins to form the wonderful flavor and dark brown color of crusty bread.
Does adding water or ice cubes to an oven help produce steam?
Yes, but many home ovens are problematic because they cannot retain moisture in the way a professional steam-injected oven can; the thick walls, small internal volume and heavy lid of a Dutch oven works well to trap steam.
Where can you buy lava rocks?
Many hardware stores have them for use in grills.
Best way to create steam (besides Dutch oven) in a home oven.
Place a large sheet tray with lava rocks in the bottom until heated and add boiling water. Keep oven door closed for one minute, add bread and more water to stones.
A properly baked loaf should register between what temperature?
195 to 210ºF
Why is internal temperature for bread not always a good indicator?
The moisture inside bread prevents its internal temp from going over boiling point, which is just above the proper temp for baked bread.