Flashcards in Chapter 39 Female Pelvis- Fill in the Blank Deck (50):
The anterior cul-de-sac, or _______ pouch, is located anterior to the fundus of the uterus between the urinary bladder and the uterus.
The posterior cul-de-sac, or _______ pouch, is located posterior to the uterus between the aterus and the rectum.
The rectouterine pouch is often referred to as the pouch of _____ and is normally the most inferior and most posterior region of the peritoneal cavity.
An additional sonographically significant area is the retropubic space, which is also called the space of _______.
The retropubic space normally can be identified between the _____ bladder wall and the pubic symphysis.
The retropubic space normally contains subcutaneous fat, but a hematoma or abscess in this location may displace the urinary bladder _______.
The greatest quantity of free fluid in the cul-de-sac normally occurs immediately following ________ when the mature follicle ruptures.
The average menstrual cycle is approximately ____ days in length, beginning with the first day of menstrual bleeding.
The menstrual cycle is regulated by the _______ and is dependent upon the cyclic release of estrogen and progesterone from the ovaries.
During the menarchal years a(n) ______ is released once a month by one of the two ovaries in a process known as ovulation
Ovulation normally occurs midcycle on about day ____ of a 28 day cycle.
Secretion of the _______ by the anterior pituitary gland causes the ovarian follicles to develop during the first half of menstrual cycle.
This phase of the ovulatory cycle, known as the _______ phase, begins with the first day of menstrual bleeding and continues until ovulation on day 14.
The _______ hormone level will typically increase rapidly 24 to 36 hours before ovulation in a process known as the LH surge.
Cells in the lining of the ruptured ovarian follicle begin to multiply and create the corpus luteum, or yellow body, during the _____ phase.
The phase of endometrial regeneration is called the _______ phase and will last until luteninization of the graafian follicle around ovulation.
The endometrial phase after ovulation is referred to as the ______ phase and extends from approximately day 15 to the onset of menses (day 28). The secretory phase of the endometrial cycle corresponds to the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle.
The approach that requires a full urinary bladder for use as an "acoustic window" and typically necessitates the use of a 3.5-to 5-MHz transducer for adequate penetration is the ______ approach.
A _______ examination is performed with an empty bladder and allows the use of a higher-frequency transducer, typically 7.5 to 10MHz.
The transabdominal scan offers a _____ field of view for general screening of the pelvic anatomy.
When a transabdominal scanning technique is used, a _______ urinary bladder is essential.
The _____ are folds of skin at the opening of the vagina; the labia _____ is the thicker external folds, and the _____ consists of thin folds of skin between the labia majora.
labia, majora, minora
The ______ bones make up the anterior and lateral margins of the bony pelvis; the _____ and _____ form the posterior wall.
innominate, sacrum, coccyx
The margins of the posterolateral wall of the true pelvis are formed by the ______ and ______ muscles.
The anterolateral walls of the of the pelvic cavity are formed by the hip bones and the ________ muscles that rim the ischium and pubis.
The lower margin of the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, is formed by the _____ and ______ muscles and is known as the pelvic diaphragm.
levator ani, coccygeus
The area below the pelvic floor is the ______.
The muscles of the false pelvis include the _____ major and______ muscles.
The muscles that arise from the lower part of the pubic symphysis and surround the lower part of the rectum, forming a sling, are the _______ muscles.
A collapsed muscular tube that extends from the external genitalia to the cervix of the uterus is the _______
The cervix lies ______ to the urinary bladder and urethra and _____to the rectum and anus.
The largest organ in the normal female pelvis when the urinary bladder is empty is the _______
At the lateral borders of the uterine fundus are the _______, where the fallopian tube enter the uterine cavity.
The cervix is constricted at its upper end by the -________ os and its lower end by the _______ os.
The point where the uterus bends anteriorly (anteversion) or posteriorly (retroversion) with an empty bladder is the ______
The uterine wall consists of three histologic layers: the ______, the _______, and the _________
perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
The endometrium consists primarily of two layers: the superficial layer (zona _______) and the deep basal layer (zona ________)
The uterus is supported in its midline position by paired _____ ligaments, _____ ligaments, _______ ligaments, and _______ligaments.
broad, round, uterosacral, cardinal
The average uterine position is considered to be ______ and _______.
The _______ are contained in the upper margin of the broad ligament and extend from the uterine cornea of the uterus laterally where they curve over the ovary.
The fallopian tubes are divided into four anatomic portions: the ________ (lateral segment), _______ (middle segment), _______(medial segment), and ________ portions (segments that passes through the uterine cornua)
infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus, interstitial
The ______ is often referred to as the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube because it contains fringelike extensions, called fimbriae, which mover over the ovary directing the ovum into the fallopian tube after ovulation.
The ovaries are usually located ______ to the external iliac vessels and ______ to the internal iliac vessels and ureter,
The cortex of the ovary consists primarily of follicles in varying stages of development and is covered by a layer of dense connective tissue, the ______
The central _____ is composed of connective tissue containing blood, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and some smooth muscle at the region of the hilum.
The ovaries produce the reproductive cell, the ovum, an two known hormones: ______, secreted by the follicles, and _______, secreted by the corpus luteum.
The common _____ arteries course anterior and medial to the psoas muscles, providing blood to the pelvic cavity and lower extremities.
The ______ iliac arteries extend pelvic cavity along the posterior wall and provide multiple branches that perfuse the pelvic structures to include the urinary bladder, uterus, vagina, and rectum.
The _____ arteries extend through the myometrium to the base of the endometrium, where straight and spiral arteries branch off the radial arteries to supply the zona basalis of the endometrium