Chapter 39- The Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 39- The Reproductive System Deck (55):
1

Sagital cut

Cut down middle view

2

Scrotum

Thin skinned membrane that covers both testes.

3

Why are the testes outside body

Bc sperm can’t develop inside the body bc it’s too warm, it’s about two degrees cooler outside

4

Epididymus

There are two of them where the mature sperm are stored they are stored her about 3-4 days before they die and are absorbed into the blood stream

5

Vas deferrins

The two pathways that come off the back of each teste to the abdominal canvity over top of the bladder and down behind it

6

Seminal vesicles

Glands that add fluid to moving sperm, path continues to prostate

7

Prostate

Gland that adds fluid to moving sperm

8

Cowper’s gland

Releases mucus ahead of the sperm to rinse out the rest of the path when sperm arrive. It rinses our pee which is acidic which makes it more hospitable for sperm

9

Prostate cancer

Major killer to men bc the symptoms are what every old man experiences. The glands swell which prevent u from peeing right, check during colonoscopy

10

Erection

Blood surges into sponge fills with blood penis expands. Only time there’s movement without muscles

11

Ejaculation

The process of releasing sperm. Lasts 2-3 seconds. Sperm is produced but muscular rings around urethra and vas deferrins

12

How many sperm in avg ejaculate

200 million

13

Composition of semen

60% from seminal vesicles
Vitamins c
Fructose to give sperm energy
Mostly mucus

14

What gland produced most of fluid

Prostate

15

Sperms pH

Alkaline, when the pH 7-8 mucus interacts with the speed they become active and can swim. The semen is ejaculated into the back of the vagina bc it changes the vaginas 5-6 ph to 7-8 in back

16

Spermogenesis

The creation of sperm

17

Acrosome

Helmet protects the sperms nucleus

18

Midpiece

Where the mitochondria are. They provide energy by adp to atp conversion. They move fibers which make the tail (flagella) whip

19

Fimbrea

Float on surface of ovary that move the egg to the Fallopian tube (hairs)

20

Fallopian tube

Has cilia that move the egg along. Liquid from the abdomen also goes through it
Where sperm meets egg

21

Uterus

Smaller than ur fist
Lined with smooth muscle
The fertilized egg comes down from the Fallopian tubes to here. The walls are a half inch think when not pregnant

22

Cervix

Opening at bottom of uterus to vagina

23

Hymen

Web like layer of tissue near opening of vagina

24

Labia

3 folds that protect opening of vagina

25

Clitoris

Small structure that fills with blood like the penis does

26

Changes in males after puberty

Increase in testosterone results in fat dissolving and miss mass increasing. Vocal cords stretch and cause voice cracks. Hair growth in pits groin and face. Wet dreams only when testes first are turning on

27

Women puberty

Get curvy bc we build fat stores from estrogen, acillary and pubic hair growth. 2-3 process of breast growth

28

Menstral cycles 3 parts

1. Menses
2. Prolifrative stage (6-14)
3. Progesterone levels rise and peak day 24

29

Menses

Day 1-5. The blood lining is shed bc the membrane that holds the blood lining of the uterus together dissolves

30

Follicle

Blister cell that starts filling with fluid. Contains an egg in the middle. The follicle moves to the outside of the ovary and bursts releasing the liquid and the egg with 1/2 of the chromosomes

31

FSH AND LH

FSH- hormone that helps to grow the follicle
LH- hormone that help the membrane form around the egg
These both work together to form the egg

32

Prolifrative stage

Day 6-14, the blood lining builds back up caused by the rising of estrogen. Day 14 is ovulation when the egg leaves the ovary.

33

What makes menses begins again and peaks of day 24 of the menstral cycle

Progesterone levels

34

Blastocyst

The egg and the other supporting cells around it (blood vessels, placenta, and the umbilical cord grow from this). These form when the fertilized egg arrive and implant in the uterin wall

35

Human chorionic gonadotrophin , hormone that is released into the blood stream and the urine after the placenta begins to grow. It shows up in urine pregnancy tests 7-10 days after a missed period (2 weeks after conception). In blood tests it will show up the third day after a missed period.

Human chorionic Gonadotrophin

36

Birth control

Prevents ovulation

37

When ovulation occurs there’s a

Slight temp spike

38

Zygote

When conception occurs the haploid gamete cells turns into this

39

Fetus

The zygote is considered this when it arrives in the uterus and has been there for ten weeks

40

Two types of twins

Maternal
Paternal

41

Maternal twins

Involves one sperm and one egg. When the egg is dividing it splits off forming two identical twins.
4-8-to two 8 that then keep dividing

42

Paternal twins

If two follicles mature and one sperm fertilize each

43

Braxton Hicks contractions

Two weeks prior to delivery women get these as hormone levels build in the uterus. Oxytocin from the hypothalamus trigger them. You know they’re Braxton Hicks contractions instead of the actual ones bc they don’t build in intensity and aren’t regular in terms of minutes

44

Cervical dilation

Cervix starts to dilate at about 8 months
1-2 cm dilated for the last week of pregnancy for the first baby and 3-4 cm for the second

45

Breach baby

When then baby is butt down instead of head down during labor

46

Stages of labor

Dialation
Expulsion

47

Dialation stage

1-10 cm. Contractions begin last for one minute and are 3-6 minutes apart.when the cervix is 10 cm dismayed they are 3 mins long with only a one minute break. With the first baby this stage can last 6-10 hours

48

Amniotic fluid

In thin sac (amniotic sac) that holds the baby it’s cloudy b it has the baby’s dead skin cells in it. After the water breaks the baby must be delivered by 24 hours or else infection. If it’s longer doctors do c section

49

When the water breaks what increases

Contractions due to the release of oxytocin

50

Pitocin

Man made oxytocin that is given to increase contractions to speed up delivery

51

Episiotomy

Doctor cuts opening of vagina if they think it’s going to tear so it’s easier to suture

52

The afterbirth

Placenta pulls away from uterine wall (fetomaternal bleed) mom delivers it 15 mins later

53

Apgar score

Nurse quietly takes this test to see if the baby is ok. The first 10-15 mins the baby’s organs are turning on

54

Bilirubin

Waste product of hemoglobin. There is 0.1-0.3 mg per Decaliter in the blood stream rn. A baby’s bilirubin will rise bc the liver isn’t working yet.

55

At ____ mg per dl the baby will _____

15, jaundice(turn orange)