Chapter 3a/b: Energy/Amt. to Feed & Feeding for Different Life Stages (Hill) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3a/b: Energy/Amt. to Feed & Feeding for Different Life Stages (Hill) Deck (78):
1

Are dogs bulk limited? *

No. They are designed to eat large, infrequent meals

2

energy budget is comprised of: *

energy in: metabolizable energy in food
energy out: requirements under different conditions

3

3 methods to determine how much to feed. Which is best for estimating energy needs of an individual animal? *

1) a good diet history: multiply energy density of each ingredient by amt. eaten and total (best)
2) calculation from BW (calculate MER of an average animal)
3) look at package

4

requirement = *

energy density (kcal/g) x amount fed (g)

5

# cans, cups, or g/day to feed = *

avg. maintenance energy requirement (kcal/day)/ energy density (kcal/can or cup or g)

6

energy required for maintenance of body weight can vary by up to __% of mean? *

40%

7

When should you use a calculation from BW to determine how much to feed? *

-when introducing new food
-inappetant or obese patients
-hospitalized patients

8

main problem of using a calculation to determine how much to feed *

only gives a mean of a population, not a measure of INDIVIDUAL requirement

9

label reccomendations are based on: *

a calculation of population mean. Not necessarily accurate for the individual

10

DER = **

daily energy requirement. Includes growth/production

11

MER = **

maintenance energy requirement = DER - energy needed for production/growth. Amount of energy necessary to maintain equilibrium over a length of time.

12

RFMR = **

resting fed metabolic rate (aka resting energy requirement (RER) or resting energy expenditure (REE)?). Same as basal metabolic rate but not post-absorptive. How much to feed a dog in a cage

13

BMR = **

basal metabolic rate. Energy required to maintain homeostasis/minimal metabolism when p is postabsorptive, awake, lying down, in thermoneutral unstressed environment

14

thermonuetral environment *

env. where animal doesn't have to expend energy to stay warm or cold

15

Does REE directly relate to body weight? *

No. Increasing energy requirements more directly related to increasing body surface area

16

REE = *

resting energy requirement. Doesn't have a solid definition. Doesn't distinguish whether they've been fed or not

17

BMR (REE?) = (equation) *****

70 x W(kg)^0.75 kcal/day. A REE equation across species

18

REE = (equation) *****

70 + 30 x W(kg) kcal/day. A STRAIGHT LINE APPROXIMATION. only works well for animals 8-20kg

19

metabolic body weight = *

W(kg) ^.75 = ((W^3)^.5)^.5 = sq. root. of sg. root.of W^3

20

factors that affect energy requirements *

growth, pregnancy, lactation, work, neutered,age, breed, etc.

21

dietary thermogenesis and equation *

energy used for assimilation of food. = RFMR - BMR

Has 2 components:
1) excitement component: energy from seeing food
2) energy from assimilation of food

22

dietary thermogenesis is highest for protein/fat/carbs? *

protein

23

dietary therm. is similar/dissimilar for enteral or parenteral nutrition? *

similar

24

standing = BMR x ___ *

1.5 (energy requirement increases about 50% just by standing up)

25

energy from running is proportional to: *

distance traveled, NOT speed

26

thermoneutral zone of adult dogs *

20-35 degrees

27

therm. zone of huskies *

<0

28

therm. zone of newborn puppies *

30

29

therm. zone of adult cats *

30-38

30

mean BMR for dogs *

76

31

mean RFMR for dogs *

84

32

mean MER for dogs *

130 (goes up with increased exercise)

33

T or F: cats lose energy requirements as they get older *

FALSE. some may MORE energy as they get older!

34

T or F: dogs lose energy requirements with age *

T

35

breed with higher MER *

great danes

36

breed with lower MER *

huskies, corgis, newfoundlands

37

spay/neuter --> appetite, MER *

appetite increases, MER decreases. However, affect is uncertain because these things may be affected by decrease in LBM

38

Is energy use related to lean body mass or BW? *

LBM

39

How to calculate ideal BW before estimating MER in obese patients? *

current weight x 100/(100+% overweight)

(% overweight is found by adding 10-15% for each BCS point above 5/9)

40

stress/disease --> energy needs *

increases. Increases most for sepsis

41

daily ME requirements for adult cats at maintenance ***

about 200 (100-300) kcal/day. Neutered cats should be 30% less

42

MER equation *

factor x REE = 1.3 to 2 x 70 x W^0.75

43

How much to feed during pregnancy of bitch? *

1st 5-6 weeks: no increase in weight: no additional food needed
last 3-4 weeks: increase intake 10-15% /wk

44

cats gain weight throughout pregnancy, whereas dogs only gain weight in last 3-4 weeks *

:)

45

food requirement of lactating bitch/queen varies with: *

litter size (peak >> 3-4xMER)

46

ME requirement for lactation in bitches *

145 x W^0.75 + W(24n +12m) x L

47

bitch milk vs. cow milk *

-has 1.5 kcal ME/mL (about 2x caloric density of cow's milk)
-increased protein, fat, calcium
-decreased lactose
-antibodies not passed via placenta: colostrum very important!

48

orphan rearing: how much to feed? *

25kcal/100g BW
15% of BW/d during first week, then 25% BW/d

49

When to introduce canned food to pups/kittens? *

3 weeks. Wean pups at 6-8 wks or later

50

rapid growth increases risk of ____ in large breed dogs *

hip dysplasia

51

large/small breed dogs take longer to reach mature weight? *

large

52

puppy protein requirements by age *

greater before 14 wks, then decrease. No supplements are necessary!

53

MER of half grown pups *

200-250 x W^0.75

54

MER of >3 mo. old pups *

same total as parents

55

amt. of what mineral very important in growing Danes? Optimum amount to feed? *

Calcium. Feed 1% DM or 2-4g/1000 kcal. More will cause osteochondrosis, less causes osteoporosis. Ca/P less important.

56

kittens should increase by how much weight/week? *

~100g/week

57

when do kittens reach adult weight? *

1-2 yrs

58

kittens have an increased ____ requirement *

protein. No need to add more though! diet is balanced

59

interspecies BMR *

70 x W^0.75

60

dog MER *

70-1000xW^0.75

61

cat MER *

100-300 kcal/day

62

T or F: dogs lose all extra weight immediately after parturition *

T

63

T or F: cats lose all extra weight immediately after parturition

F. Only 40% lost at part. remaining 60% lost during early lactation

64

what things is energy used for?

basal metabolism (50-90%)
dietary thermogenesis
heat of fermentation
maint. of body temp.
stress/dz
activity
product formation

65

fat uses more/less energy than lean tissue *

less

66

refeeding syndrome

condition in malnourished dogs fed too many calories

67

individual MER can be __% above or bellow the mean MER

50%

68

poililotherms require/more less energy than endoderms

less. Fish least of all!

69

fetal growth in bitches only significant during ____ part of pregnancy

last third

70

when in queen's peak lactation?

7-8 weeks post partum

71

when in bitch's peak lactation?

3-4 wks post-partum

72

epidermal growth factor

component of breat milk that may influence development of puppy intestine. Another reason you should not wean early.

73

orphan feeding protocol *

feed every 2-4 hrs first day. Then reduce graudally to 4x/day. Feed when crying; don't wake to feed. Keep pups warm and moist. Warm milk replacer to body temp before feeding.

74

T or F: total energy intake of pups at 3 mo. and 18 mos. is about the same

T

75

Puppy growth is proportional to:

size of adult

76

T or F: restricted food intake doesn't affect final height, length, bone size, or muscle mass

T

77

rickets occurs when Ca < ____

0.% DM (1.4mg/kcal)

78

Mean daily metabolizable energy intake of kittens peaks at what age?

10 wks