Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (40):
Everything of which we are aware at any given time-our thoughts,feelings , sensations, and perceptions of the external environment
Altered state of consciousness
Change in awareness produced by sleep,meditation, hypnosis, or drugs
Within each 24 hour period the regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors. (Sleep/wakefulness cycle )
A pair of tiny structures in the brains hypothamulus that control the timing of circadian rhythm;which is the biological clock. Located in the brains hypothalamus .
The time during a 24 hr period when the biological clock is telling a person to go to sleep
The increased amount of REM sleep that occurs after REM deprivation.
Stage 4 sleep
The deepest stage of REM sleep, characterized by an EEG pattern of more than 50% delta waves.
REM (rapid eye movement) sleep
A type of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, paralysis, fast and irregular heart and respiration rates, increased brain wave activity, vivid dreams.
Restorative theory of sleep
The theory that the function of sleep is to restore body and mind. A person feels sleepy more they stay awake.
Slow wave sleep
Deep sleep. Associated with stage 3 and stage 4 sleep
Sleep stage 2 brain waves that feature short periods of calm interrupted by brief flashes of intense activity.
NREM (non REM) sleep
Four sleep stages characterized by slow, regular respiration and heart rate, little body movement and blood pressure and brain activity that are their 24 hr low points
A period of sleep lasting about 90 min and including one or more stages of NREM sleep, followed by REM
Circadian theory of sleep
The theory that sleep evolved to keep humans out of harms way during the night, in order to not become a prey for a nocturnal predator; also known as the evolutionary or adaptive theory.
Hormone which induces sleep which secretes from the pineal gland ( only at night it releases)
Helps people remain alert without side affects of stimulants such as caffeine
Blood pressure, heart rate, appetite, hormones, -follow circadian rhythm
Sunlight. Which hit the specialized cells ( photoreceptors) that are in the retina located in the back of the eye then hits the optic nerve (scn)
Explains how a synthesis of the circadian and restorative theories can be used to explain the function of sleep
First discovered these burst of rapid eye movements
William dement and Nathaniel kleitman
Made the connection between rapid eye movements and dreaming
Leads to suppression of neurological activity in the temporal lobes
sleep disturbances in which behaviors and physiological states that normally take place only in the waking state occur while a person sleeping.
sleep disorder in which the timing, quantity or quality of sleep is impaired
INCURABLE sleep disorder, characterized by excessive day time sleepiness and uncontrollable attacks of REM sleep
a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling or staying asleep by waking too early or by sleep that is light , restless, or of poor quality.
sleep disorder characterized by periods during sleep when breathing stops and individual must awaken briefly in order to breath.
sleep walking occurs during parti arousal of stage 4 sleep
sleep talking occurs during any stage of sleep
frightening dream occurs during partial arousal of stage 4, sleeper springs up in a state of panic usually shortly after falling asleep
are more frightening that sleep terrors because they occur during REM sleep and as a result are far more realistic.
Sleepers often awaken to full consciousness and rememeber the dream in detail
type of dream occurring almost continuously during each REM period.
Storylike quality, more vivid and realistic, visual and emotional than NREM
type of dream occurring during NREM sleep.
it's less frequent, less memorable, than REM dreams
is a dream that an individual is aware of dreaming.
often being able to indulgence content and control the dream while it's in process
Freud's term for the content of a dream as recalled by the dreamer; "the storyline"
Freud's term for the underlying meaning of a dream; "the symbolism"
cognitive theory of dreaming
Hall's(1953)the theory that dreaming is just like thinking while we sleep
activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming
Hobson &McCarley's (1977) hypothesis that dreams are the brains attempt to make sense of the random firing of brain cells during REM sleep.