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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (40):
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Consciousness

Everything of which we are aware at any given time-our thoughts,feelings , sensations, and perceptions of the external environment

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Altered state of consciousness

Change in awareness produced by sleep,meditation, hypnosis, or drugs

2

Circadian rhythm

Within each 24 hour period the regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors. (Sleep/wakefulness cycle )

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Suprachiasmatic nucleus

A pair of tiny structures in the brains hypothamulus that control the timing of circadian rhythm;which is the biological clock. Located in the brains hypothalamus .

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Subjective night

The time during a 24 hr period when the biological clock is telling a person to go to sleep

5

REM rebound

The increased amount of REM sleep that occurs after REM deprivation.

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Stage 4 sleep

The deepest stage of REM sleep, characterized by an EEG pattern of more than 50% delta waves.

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REM (rapid eye movement) sleep

A type of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, paralysis, fast and irregular heart and respiration rates, increased brain wave activity, vivid dreams.

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Restorative theory of sleep

The theory that the function of sleep is to restore body and mind. A person feels sleepy more they stay awake.

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Slow wave sleep

Deep sleep. Associated with stage 3 and stage 4 sleep

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Sleep spindles

Sleep stage 2 brain waves that feature short periods of calm interrupted by brief flashes of intense activity.

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NREM (non REM) sleep

Four sleep stages characterized by slow, regular respiration and heart rate, little body movement and blood pressure and brain activity that are their 24 hr low points

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Sleep cycle

A period of sleep lasting about 90 min and including one or more stages of NREM sleep, followed by REM

13

Circadian theory of sleep

The theory that sleep evolved to keep humans out of harms way during the night, in order to not become a prey for a nocturnal predator; also known as the evolutionary or adaptive theory.

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Melatonin

Hormone which induces sleep which secretes from the pineal gland ( only at night it releases)

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Modafimil

Helps people remain alert without side affects of stimulants such as caffeine

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Physiological functions

Blood pressure, heart rate, appetite, hormones, -follow circadian rhythm

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Environmental cue

Sunlight. Which hit the specialized cells ( photoreceptors) that are in the retina located in the back of the eye then hits the optic nerve (scn)

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Polysomnigrams

Sleep recordings

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Alexander borbely

Explains how a synthesis of the circadian and restorative theories can be used to explain the function of sleep

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Eugene azerinsky

First discovered these burst of rapid eye movements

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William dement and Nathaniel kleitman

Made the connection between rapid eye movements and dreaming

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Sleep deprivation

Leads to suppression of neurological activity in the temporal lobes

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parasomnias

sleep disturbances in which behaviors and physiological states that normally take place only in the waking state occur while a person sleeping.

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dyssomnias

sleep disorder in which the timing, quantity or quality of sleep is impaired

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narcolepsy

INCURABLE sleep disorder, characterized by excessive day time sleepiness and uncontrollable attacks of REM sleep

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insomnia

a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling or staying asleep by waking too early or by sleep that is light , restless, or of poor quality.

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sleep apnea

sleep disorder characterized by periods during sleep when breathing stops and individual must awaken briefly in order to breath.

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somnambulism

sleep walking occurs during parti arousal of stage 4 sleep

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somniloquy

sleep talking occurs during any stage of sleep

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sleep terrors

frightening dream occurs during partial arousal of stage 4, sleeper springs up in a state of panic usually shortly after falling asleep

31

nightmares

are more frightening that sleep terrors because they occur during REM sleep and as a result are far more realistic.

Sleepers often awaken to full consciousness and rememeber the dream in detail

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REM dream

type of dream occurring almost continuously during each REM period.
Storylike quality, more vivid and realistic, visual and emotional than NREM

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NREM

type of dream occurring during NREM sleep.

it's less frequent, less memorable, than REM dreams

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lucid dreams

is a dream that an individual is aware of dreaming.

often being able to indulgence content and control the dream while it's in process

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manifest content

Freud's term for the content of a dream as recalled by the dreamer; "the storyline"

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latent content

Freud's term for the underlying meaning of a dream; "the symbolism"

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cognitive theory of dreaming

Hall's(1953)the theory that dreaming is just like thinking while we sleep

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activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming

Hobson &McCarley's (1977) hypothesis that dreams are the brains attempt to make sense of the random firing of brain cells during REM sleep.

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Evolutionary theory of dreaming

the theory explaining that vivid REM dreams enable people to rehearse the skills needed to fend of threats and predators in a real life situation